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Language > Rom - Sin > Sanskrit

Now updated for CSW19. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.

acharya a Hindu teacher or learned man.
adharma unrighteousness (the opposite of DHARMA).
ahimsa in Hindu philosophy, the principle of non-injury to living beings.
ajiva inanimate matter.
alaap alap alapa in Indian music, the introductory section of a RAGA.
amreeta amrita a drink which bestows immortality in Hindu mythology.
amritattva immortality.
ananda extreme happiness.
anata anatman the doctrine that there is no such thing as the individual self.
anga a yoga practice.
anicca the belief that everything is impermanent and constantly changing.
apsaras a divine water sprite > APSARASES.
arhat a Buddhist who has attained nirvana.
asana a yoga posture.
ashram ashrama asrama the dwelling of a Hindu religious philosopher.
ashtanga astanga asthanga a form of yoga aiming to synchronize breathing and posture.
asura a Hindu demon.
atma atman the universal soul.
avatar an incarnation of the god Vishnu; an electronic image that represents and is manipulated by a computer user (as in a computer game or an online shopping site).
ayurveda the traditional system of Indian medicine. [Skr. 'knowledge of life'].
bahuvrihi a class of compound words where the first element describes the second but cannot substitute for it, e.g. turncoat.
bhakta bhakti spiritual love, devotion.
brinjal the aubergine or egg-plant.
buddha a statue or picture of the Buddha.
calpa kalpa one of the Brahmanic eons, a period of 4,320,000,000 years. At the end of each kalpa the world is annihilated.
chakra in yoga, one of the seven centres of spiritual energy.
deva a god; a deity; a divine being.
devanagari nagari the character in which Sanskrit is usually printed.
devi a Hindu goddess.
dharma dhamma custom or law regarded as duty; the basic principles of cosmic or individual existence.
dhyana profound meditation.
dosha each of three energies believed in Ayurveda to circulate in the body.
duhkha dukkha suffering due to the desire for permanence.
dvandva a compound word in which neither element is subordinated to the other, e.g. tragicomedy.
garuda a Hindu demigod, part man, part bird.
gat gath the second section of a raga.
gopura gopuram in Southern India, a pyramidal tower over the gateway of a temple.
harijan in India, a member of the untouchable caste.
hatha as in hatha yoga, a form of yoga.
jalebi jallebi an Asian snack of deep-fried dough covered with syrup.
jambolan jambu jambul jambool jambolana the rose-apple tree of Malaysia.
jhala in Hindu music, part of the second movement of a RAGA.
jnana spiritual knowledge.
jor in Hindu music, the second movement of a RAGA.
juggernaut derives from one of the names under which Vishnu, in his incarnation as Krishna, is worshiped by the Hindus. [Skt. Jagannatha, f. jagat world + natha lord, protector.]
kama earthly desire.
karma the moral quality of actions regarded as determining the nature of a future existence. [Skr. karma, act]
karmic relating to KARMA, the moral quality of actions regarded as determining the nature of a future existence.
kathak a dance of N. India.
kirtan devotional singing, usually accompanied by instruments.
kundalini in yoga, spiritual energy that lies dormant at base of spine until the brain is enlightened.
linga lingam the phallic symbol under which Siva is principally worshipped in his character of the creative and reproductive power.
lohan a Buddhist who has attained nirvana, an ARHAT.
maha great, as in maha yoga.
maharaja maharajah a king or prince in India ranking above a rajah, especially the sovereign of one of the former native states.
maharishi a Hindu teacher of mysticism and spiritual knowledge.
mahatma a religious adept, a sage. [Skr mahatman, (great-souled)].
mandala a design symbolic of the universe, used for meditation.
mantra mantram a sacred word or syllable.
maya in Buddhist philosophy, the power to produce illusions.
moksha freedom from the endless cycle of transmigration.
moorva murva bowstring hemp.
mridamgam mridanga mridang mridangam a two-headed Indian drum, one head being larger than the other.
mudra a sealing movement in Yoga.
murti a religious image which is itself considered divine once consecrated.
naga in Indian mythology, a member of a race of semi-divine creatures, half-snake and half-human, that are the genii of rain, rivers, etc.
namaste namaskar a traditional salutation, a slight bow with the palms pressed together.
nirvana freedom from the endless cycle of birth and death and related suffering, in Hindu and Buddhist religions. [Skr. nirvana (blowing out, extinguishing, extinction), from nis-(out) + vati (it blows). The word wind derives from the same root.]
padma the sacred lotus.
pandit pundit a Hindu learned in Sanskrit. [Skr. pandita learned, conversant with.]
pooja poojah puja pujah a Hindu act of worship or prayer.
prajna wisdom considered as the goal of Buddhist contemplation
prana in yoga, vital energy present in air and sunlight.
pranayama the discipline of yogic breathing.
purana one of a class of sacred Hindu poetical works in the Sanskrit language which treat of the creation, destruction, and renovation of worlds, the genealogy and achievements of gods and heroes.
puranic like a PURANA.
raga an Indian musical form. [Skr. raga, colour, tone].
ragini a modified RAGA.
rakshas rakshasa an Hindu mythology, an evil spirit.
rishi a sage or poet.
sadhu an ascetic Indian holy man. [Skr. sadhu, pious].
samadhi a state of oneness with the infinite.
samsara the never-ending cycle of birth, death and rebirth.
samskara a Hindu purification ceremony.
sandhi the modification of a sound of a word by its context, e.g. the difference in pronunciation of the in 'the house' and in 'the other house' is an example of sandhi.
sati suttee the act of a Hindu widow willingly being cremated on the funeral pyre of her husband. [Sanskrit sati, a true wife].
satsang a sacred gathering in Hinduism.
satyagraha the policy of passive resistance inaugurated by Mohandas Gandhi in 1919 as a method of gaining political and social reforms. [Skr. 'reliance on truth'].
shanti shantih peace.
shaster shastra sastra a treatise for authoritative instruction among the Hindus; a book of institutes; especially, a treatise explaining the Vedas. [Skr. from a root to teach].
shri sri a title of respect, sir. [Skr. shri, majesty].
siddha sidha one who has obtained occult powers.
siddhi in Buddhism, the supernatural powers that come with meditation. [Skr. siddhi, fulfilment].
smriti one of a group of sacred writings.
soneri a cloth of gold. [Hindi sona, gold].
sraddha shraddha sradha an offering to the manes of an ancestor.
stupa a mound or monument commemorative of Buddha.
sundari sundra sundri an E. Indian tree.
sutra sutta a precept; an aphorism; a brief rule. [Skr. sutra thread, string, rule].
svarabhakti development of a vowel between consonants.
svaraj swaraj self-government, home rule.
svastika swastika swastica a Greek cross with arms bent at a right angle.
tala a traditional rhythmic pattern in Indian music. [Skr. 'hand-clapping'].
tantra Hindu or Buddhist religious writings concerned with mysticism and magic.
tathata the ultimate nature of things in Buddhism.
tatpurusha a class of compound words in which the first element modifies the second by standing to it in various types of relation e.g. goatskin, fieldmouse.
trisul trisula the trident of Shiva.
vahana a vehicle in Sanskrit myth.
vanaspati a hydrogenated vegetable fat used as a butter substitute. [Skr. 'lord of the forest'].
varna one of the four great Hindu castes. [Skr. varna, class].
veena vina an Indian stringed instrument.
vihara a Buddhist or Jain temple or precinct.
vimana in the Indian subcontinent, the central tower enclosing the shrine in a temple.
vipassana meditative practice in Buddhism, aimed at obtaining a true metaphysical picture of reality, which means dissolving the stable categories of substance and self in favour of the evanescent.
yantra a geometrical diagram used in meditation.
yoga a system of Hindu philosophy.
yogi a male practitioner of yoga.
yogini a female practitioner of yoga.
yoni a representation of the female genitals.
yug yuga one of the four Hindu ages of the world.