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Science & Tech > Earth > Minerals

Now updated for CSW19. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.

acmite a soda pyroxene whose crystals show a steep pyramid.
adularia a transparent or translucent variety of common FELDSPAR, or ORTHOCLASE; aka MOONSTONE. [From the Adula group in the Alps].
aegirine aegirite a silicate of iron and sodium occurring in many alkaline igneous rocks. [From the Norse sea-god Aegir].
agate a type of CHALCEDONY.
agatize agatise to convert into agate; to make resemble agate.
agatoid like AGATE.
alabaster a soft, semi-transparent gypsum.
albertite a bituminous mineral resembling ASPHALT, found in the county of Albert, New Brunswick.
albite a sodium-rich plagioclase, usu. white, occurring widely in silicate rocks; aka sodium feldspar.
albitic pertaining to ALBITE, a white silicate.
albitical of or like ALBITE.
albitise albitize to turn into ALBITE, a mineral, a white silicate.
allanite a silicate containing a large amount of cerium, related to EPIDOTE in form and composition.
allophane a translucent, colored aluminum silicate.
almandine almandite alabandine almondite a deep red garnet consisting of an iron aluminum silicate.
alumin alumina alumine an oxide of aluminium.
aluminous pertaining to or containing alum, or alumina; as, aluminous minerals, aluminous solution.
alumstone another name for ALUNITE, a hydrous sulphate of aluminum and potassium.
alunite a hydrous sulphate of aluminum and potassium, aka alum-stone.
amazonite amazon-stone, a green microcline said to be given by the Brazilian Amazons to the men who visited them.
amethyst a purple gemstone, believed to ward off drunkenness.
amianthine of or like AMIANTHUS, asbestos with silky fibres.
amianthus amiantus asbestos with silky fibres. [Gk. amiantos (lithos) undefiled (stone), from a- (privative), and miainein to soil].
amosite a brown asbestos, a form of asbestos mined only in S. Africa.
amphibole any mineral of a group of dark-coloured, rock-forming silicates.
analcime analcite a white or flesh-red mineral of the zeolite family.
analcimic of or like ANALCIME, a mineral of the zeolite family.
anatase a mineral of titanium oxide.
andesine a kind of triclinic feldspar found in the Andes.
andradite a green-to-black garnet.
anglesite a native sulphate of lead, occurring in white or yellowish transparent, prismatic crystals.
anhydrite an anhydrous sulphate of lime, differing from gypsum in not containing water (whence the name).
ankerite a mineral closely related to DOLOMITE, but containing iron.
annabergite an apple-green mineral, hydrous nickel arsenate.
anorthic triclinic, referable to three unequal oblique axes.
anorthite a plagioclase feldspar, calcium aluminium silicate.
apatite calcium fluoride phosphate, used as a fertilizer.
apophyllite hydrated calcium potassium silicate, that exfoliates on heating.
aragonite arragonite an orthorhombic mineral composed of calcium carbonate.
arfvedsonite an iron-rich sodium amphibole which occurs as black or dark green monoclinic crystals.
argentite a form of silver sulphide crystallizing in the cubic system and occurring as dark grey crystals with a metallic lustre.
argillite an indurated argillaceous rock that is harder than shale and does not split easily.
argillitic like ARGILLITE, an indurated argillaceous rock.
argyrite a silver ore, aka ARGENTITE.
arragonitic like ARRAGONITE.
asbestos asbestus a fine fibrous form of certain minerals. [Gk. (literally) unquenchable, from a- (privative) and sbestos, extinguished].
asbestous containing ASBESTOS, a fine fibrous form of certain minerals.
atacamite an oxychloride of copper, usually in emerald-green prismatic crystals.
augite one of the pyroxene group of minerals, very similar to hornblende. [Gk. auge, bright].
augitic pertaining to, or like, AUGITE; as, augitic rocks.
autunite a fluorescent minor ore of uranium. [From Autun, France].
aventurin a glass containing golden or green flecks; quartz containing mica flakes > AVENTURINS. Also AVENTURINE, AVANTURINE.
axinite a rock-forming triclinic silicate of the epidote group containing calcium, iron, manganese, aluminium, and boron, and occurring as brown or yellow, often large, crystals.
azurite a blue carbonate of copper, aka blue malachite.
balas a variety of spinel ruby, of a pale rose red, or inclining to orange.
barite baryte a native sulphate of barium.
baryta barium oxide.
barytic of or pertaining to BARYTA, barium oxide.
basaltine a type of brownish-black mineral > BASALTINES.
basanite a black form of jasper or quartzite, formerly used as a touchstone.
bentonite a kind of clay, used in industry as a filler etc.
beryl an aluminum silicate: the green form is EMERALD and the blue form AQUAMARINE.
beryline of or like BERYL.
beryllia an oxide of BERYLLIUM.
biotite mica containing iron and magnesia, generally of a black or dark green color.
biotitic of or like BIOTITE, a kind of mica.
bitumen naturally-occurring asphalt from the Middle East, used as mortar etc.
blackband an earthy carbonate of iron containing considerable carbonaceous matter; -- valuable as an iron ore.
blende a zinc sulphide, often containing some iron.
boehmite a mineral present in BAUXITE. [From Johann Böhm (1895—1952), Ger. chemist].
boracite a chloroborate of magnesium usu. occurring as greyish-white cubic crystals.
borax a hydrated sodium borate, which is a white efflorescent crystalline solid found as a native deposit or prepared from other minerals. Pl. BORAXES or BORACES.
bornite a valuable ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur, aka peacock ore.
bornitic of or like BORNITE, a valuable ore of copper.
botryoid botryoidal of minerals, occurring in grape-shaped masses.
braunite a native oxide of manganese, of dark brownish black color. [From a Mr Braun of Gotha].
bronzite a variety of ENSTATITE with bronze-like lustre.
brookite a mineral, titanium oxide.
brucite magnesium hydroxide.
bytownite a PLAGIOCLASE intermediate between ANORTHITE and LABRADORITE.
cacholong an opaque or milk-white CHALCEDONY, a variety of QUARTZ. [Fr. f. Mongolian kas chilagun precious stone].
cairngorm a yellow-brown quartz. [Gaelic carn, stone + gorm, blue].
calamine an ore of zinc, spec. the carbonate (SMITHSONITE), or less commonly the basic silicate (HEMIMORPHITE). Also, a pink preparation of powdered zinc carbonate or oxide used in lotions, ointments, etc. (Verb) to apply calamine to.
calaverite a metallic pale yellow mineral consisting of a telluride of gold in the form of elongated striated crystals.
calcedony chalcedony a cryptocrystalline form of quartz, microscopically fibrous with waxy luster.
calcite trigonal calcium carbonate, occurring e.g. as limestone or Iceland spar.
calcitic of or like CALCITE.
calcspar calcite.
carbuncle a fiery-red precious stone, aka ALMANDINE. [L. carbunculus, dim. of carbo, a coal].
carnelian cornelian a dull red or reddish-white kind of chalcedony.
carnotite a yellow uranium ore.
cauk cawk an opaque, compact variety of BARITE, or heavy spar.
celestine celestite native strontium sulphate, so named from its occasional delicate blue color.
ceria cerium oxide.
ceruse white lead, used as a pigment.
cerusite cerussite native lead carbonate, occurring in colorless, white, or yellowish transparent crystals.
ceylanite ceylonite a mineral, aka PLEONASTE, a dark-green to black variety of spinel.
chabazite a colourless, pink, or yellow zeolite which usu. occurs as rhombohedral crystals.
chalybite native iron carbonate, aka SIDERITE.
cheralite a radioactive mineral rich in thorium and uranium.
chert a microcrystalline form of silica, occurring as several varieties. Aka HORNSTONE.
cherty like chert; containing chert > CHERTIER, CHERTIEST.
chromite a black submetallic mineral consisting of oxide of chromium and iron.
cimolite a soft, earthy, clayey mineral, of whitish or grayish color.
cinnabar a red crystalline form of mercuric sulfide used as a pigment.
cleveite a radioactive mineral.
clinopyroxene a member of the pyroxene group of minerals having a monoclinic crystal structure, such as augite, diopside, or jadeite.
cobaltic pertaining to, derived from, or containing, cobalt.
cobaltine cobaltite a mineral of a nearly silver-white color, composed of arsenic, sulphur, and cobalt.
coccolite a granular variety of pyroxene, green or white in color.
coesite a type of silica.
coffinite a uranium-yielding ore.
colcothar polishing rouge; a reddish brown oxide of iron, used in polishing glass, and also as a pigment. [Arabic qolqotar].
coltan a metallic ore of COLUMBITE and TANTALITE, found in the Congo.
columbite the chief ore of niobium, an orthorhombic oxide of iron, manganese, and niobium, aka NIOBITE.
copperas ferrous sulphate heptahydrate, a green crystalline compound used in inks and pigments and in medicine. Pl. COPPERASES.
corallite a mineral substance or petrifaction, in the form of coral.
cornelian see CARNELIAN.
corundum a mineral consisting of alumina, second in hardness only to the diamond (varieties include sapphire, ruby, emery). [Tamil kurundam].
covelline covellite a native sulphide of copper, occuring in masses of a dark blue color.
crocoite crocoisite a bright red mineral, lead chromate.
cryolite kryolite kryolith an aluminum ore.
cuprite an ore of copper.
curite a radioactive mineral.
cyanite kyanite a mineral, an aluminum silicate, usually sky-blue.
cyanitic of or like CYANITE, a mineral, an aluminum silicate, usually sky-blue.
cymophane cat's-eye, a variety of chrysoberyl with wavy opalescence.
datolite a borosilicate of lime commonly occuring in glassy, greenish crystals.
dawsonite a hydrous carbonate of alumina and soda, occurring in white, bladed crustals.
demantoid a lustrous green gem variety of andradite garnet.
dendrite an arborescent -- i.e. irregularly branching like a tree -- mineral growth (commonly of some manganese oxide).
dendritic dendritical of or like a DENDRITE.
desmine the mineral STILBITE, occurring in bundles.
diallage a brown, green or grey form of AUGITE. [Gk. diallage interchange].
diallagic relating to DIALLAGE.
dialogite a native carbonate of manganese, aka RHODOCHROSITE.
diamond an allotropic form of carbon; (verb) to furnish or adorn (as) with diamonds.
diaspore a hydrate of ALUMINA, often occurring in white lamellar masses with brilliant pearly lustre.
dichroite a mineral, IOLITE or CORDIERITE; -- so called from its presenting two different colors when viewed in two different directions.
dimetric pertaining to a type of crystal system.
dimorph either one of the two forms of a dimorphous substance; as, CALCITE and ARAGONITE are dimorphs.
diopside a crystallized variety of PYROXENE, of a clear, grayish green color.
diopsidic relating to DIOPSIDE, a crystallized variety of PYROXENE, of a clear, grayish green color.
dioptase a hydrous silicate of copper, occurring in emerald-green crystals.
disthene a mineral, aka CYANITE or KYANITE-- so called in allusion to its unequal hardness in two different directions.
dolomite a mineral, double carbonate of calcium and magnesium; a rock composed of that mineral, magnesian limestone.
dolostone a rock composed of DOLOMITE.
drice dry ice or frozen granular carbon dioxide.
dripstone mineral matter deposited from a dripping solution e.g. stalactites. Cf. SPELEOTHEM.
drusy rough with or composed of minute crystals > DRUSIER, DRUSIEST.
dysodil dysodile dysodyle an impure earthy or coaly bitumen, which emits a highly fetid odor when burning.
earthwax a waxy natural paraffin, aka OZOKERITE.
elaeolite a variety of nephelite, usually massive, of greasy luster, and gray to reddish color.
elaterite elastic bitumen, a rubber-like mineral resin.
emerald a green variety of BERYL.
enargite a dark-grey crystalline copper arsenic sulphide, a minor ore of copper.
enhydrite a mineral with fluid inclusions.
enhydros a variety of CHALCEDONY containing water. [Gk. enydros containing water, from en in + hydor, water]. Pl. ENHYDROSES.
enstatite a mineral of the pyroxene group, a silicate of magnesia with some iron. BRONZITE is a ferriferous variety.
epidote a silicate of alumina, lime, and oxide of iron, or manganese.
epidotic related to, resembling, or containing EPIDOTE; as, an epidotic granite.
epsomite native sulphate of magnesia or Epsom salt.
erbia erbium oxide. [From the town of YTTERBY].
erinite a basic arsenate of copper.
erionite a mineral which occurs in white wool-like crystals.
erythrite a reddish hydrous arsenate of cobalt.
essonite hessonite cinnamon stone, a variety of garnet. [Gk. hesson, inferior (i.e. in hardness, to hyacinth which it resembles)].
euclase a hydrated beryllium aluminium silicate occurring in pale-green transparent crystals.
eudialyte a silicate of zirconium, sodium, calcium and iron, occurring in Greenland, easily dissolved by acids.
euxenite a NIOBATE and TANTALATE of yttrium and other rare earth elements and uranium.
fahlerz fahlore any grey copper ore of the system whose typical forms are TETRAHEDRITE and TENNANTITE.
fayalite a black, greenish, or brownish mineral of the CHRYSOLITE group. It is a silicate of iron.
feldspar feldspath felspar a common rock-forming mineral.
fermium a radioactive element, no. 100.
ferrite a form of pure iron.
ferritic consisting mainly of FERRITE, a form of pure iron.
fibrolite a silicate of alumina, of fibrous or columnar structure. It is like ANDALUSITE in composition; aka SILLIMANITE.
firestone iron pyrites, formerly used for striking fire.
flinkite a brownish-green mineral, manganese arsenate.
flint a variety of quartz, or a concretion of silica; (verb) to provide with a flint, for spark production.
flowstone a general term for deposits formed by dripping and flowing water on walls and floors of caves.
fluor fluorite fluorspar a mineral, calcium fluoride. [L. fluor, to flow, from its use as a flux].
foid an agreed term for FELDSPATHOID, any mineral of a group related to FELDSPAR.
forsterite a white, yellow, or green mineral of the olivine group consisting of magnesium silicate. [After J. R. Forster (1729-98), German naturalist].
fuchsite a brilliant green chromium mica.
gahnite a mineral, zinc spinel. [From J.G.Gahn, a Swedish chemist].
galena galenite an ore of lead.
galenic relating to GALENA, lead ore.
galenoid of or like GALENA, a lead ore.
garnet a name given to various silicates, some semi-precious.
gehlenite a mineral, calcium aluminum silicate.
gemstone a precious or semiprecious stone, esp. one cut and polished for setting in jewellery.
germanite a complex mineral, basically copper arsenic sulphide.
geyserite a deposit from hot springs, aka SINTER.
gibbsite a hydrate of alumina.
gilsonite another name for UINTAITE.
girasol girasole girosol a fire-opal.
globulite a rudimentary form of crystallite, spherical in shape.
gmelinite a rhombohedral zeolitic mineral, related in form and composition to CHABAZITE. [From C.G.Gmelin, a German chemist].
goethite gothite a hydrous oxide of iron, occurring in prismatic crystals.
goldstone a mineral, AVENTURINE with gold-colored inclusions.
goslarite a rare mineral, hydrated zinc sulphate, found at Goslar in the Harz Mountains.
gothite see GOETHITE.
granitite biotite granite.
graphite a soft allotrope of carbon.
graphitic pertaining to, containing, derived from, or resembling, GRAPHITE.
grossular a garnet containing calcium and aluminium, occurring in grey, pinkish, or yellow-green crystals and used as a gemstone.
gummite hydrated oxide of uranium and lead.
gypseous resembling or containing GYPSUM; partaking of the qualities of gypsum.
gypsum hydrated calcium sulphate, a soft mineral used for making plaster of Paris and as a fertilizer.
gyrolite a hydrated calcium silicate.
haematite hematite an ore of iron.
haematitic of or like HAEMATITE, an ore of iron.
harmotome a monoclinic hydrated silicate of aluminium and barium. [Gk. harmos, joint, + tomos, cut].
hauyne a blue mineral, found in lapis lazuli. [From Fr. mineralogist Rene J. Hauy].
hedyphane a white variety of green lead ore, arsenate, phosphate and chlorate of lead and calcium with barium. [Gk. hedys, sweet, pleasant].
heliodor a variety of clear yellow beryl occurring in S.W. Africa. [Gk. 'sun gift'].
hematitic of or pertaining to HEMATITE, or resembling it.
hepatite a variety of BARITE emitting a fetid odor when rubbed or heated.
hercynite black spinel, an aluminate of iron.
hessite a lead-gray sectile mineral, a telluride of silver.
hessonite see ESSONITE.
hiddenite an emerald-green variety of SPODUMENE found in North Carolina. [From W.E.Hidden].
holmia an oxide of HOLMIUM.
hornstone an alternative name sometimes given to CHERT.
humite a magnesium orthosilicate.
hyalite a pellucid variety of opal in globules looking like colorless gum or resin.
icestone another name for CRYOLITE, an aluminum ore.
idocrase a silicate of calcium, magnesium, and aluminium, occurring as brown, yellow, or green crystals or masses in metamorphosed limestones. Aka VESUVIANITE. [Gk. eidos, likeness + krasis, mixture].
illite a white or pale clay mineral found in shales or sediments.
illitic of or like ILLITE, a clay mineral.
ilmenite a brownish-black titanium ore.
impsonite an organic compound of the asphaltic group. [From Impson valley, Oklahoma].
inosilicate a class of polymeric silicates.
iodyrite native silver iodide, a yellow or greenish mineral crystallizing in the hexagonal system.
iolite a transparent gem, varying in colour with the light it transmits. [Gk. ion, violet + lithos, stone].
ionium a radioactive isotope of THORIUM.
ironstone a hard, earthy ore of iron.
jacinth an orange-colored variety of the gem hyacinth.
jade a precious stone. [Spaniards who first met this stone in the 16th century believed that it had the power to cure kidney problems, so called it piedra de ijada, kidney-stone]. (Verb) to tire.
jadeite a monoclinic silicate of sodium, aluminium, and ferric iron.
jadelike like jade.
jaditic of or like JADEITE, a mineral.
jargoon a brilliant pale or colourless zircon.
jarosite a hexagonal basic sulphate of potassium and iron occurring as yellow or brown crusts on ferruginous ores.
jasp = JASPER, a precious stone.
jasper a red variety of CHERT, its color coming from minute particles of included HEMATITE.
jasperise jasperize to turn into, or cause to resemble, JASPER.
jasperous of or like JASPER.
jaspery of the nature of jasper; mixed with jasper > JASPERIER, JASPERIEST.
jaspidean jaspideous consisting of jasper, or containing jasper.
jaspis an old name for JASPER.
jeat jet a hard black variety of LIGNITE.
jud a mass of coal.
kalinite native potash alum.
kamacite a variety of nickeliferous iron, found in meteorites.
kaolin kaoline a very pure white clay used to form the paste of porcelain; aka China clay.
kaolinic relating to KAOLIN, a very pure white clay.
kaolinise kaolinize to turn into KAOLIN, a very pure white clay.
kaolinite a hydrated aluminum silicate.
kelyphitic a mineralogical term.
kermesite a cherry-red mineral, antimony oxysulphide.
kernite a hydrated oxide of sodium and boron.
kerogen a kind of bitumen found in oil shale.
kieserite hydrous sulphate of magnesia found at the salt mines of Stassfurt, Prussian Saxony.
kryolite see CRYOLITE.
kryolith see CRYOLITE.
kunzite a lilac variety of SPODUMENE, used as a gemstone. [From G.F.Kunz, am American gemmologist].
kyanite see CYANITE.
kyanitic of or like KYANITE.
lardalite laurdalite a coarse nepheline SYENITE.
larvikite laurvikite a mineral, a soda SYENITE.
lazuli a blue semi-precious stone composed chiefly of a sulphur-containing silicate of sodium and aluminium.
lazulite a mineral of a light indigo-blue color, a hydrous phosphate of alumina and magnesia.
lazurite a blue cubic mineral, sodium aluminum silicate.
leucite a silicate of aluminium and potassium, named for its whitish colour.
lewisite a yellow or brown mineral containing antimony.
ligure a gemstone, perh. the modern jacinth, i.e, a reddish-orange variety of zircon used as a gem.
limonite a mixture of hydrous ferric oxides and important as an iron ore.
limonitic of or like LIMONITE, hydrous sesquioxide of iron.
litharge lead monoxide, PbO, a toxic red or yellow solid prepared by oxidation of lead in air and used as a pigment and in making glass and ceramics.
lithia lithium oxide, a strong alkaline caustic similar to potash and soda, but weaker.
lithotype a type of coal.
loadstone lodestone MAGNETITE that is naturally magnetized; a piece of this used as a magnet.
maceral any of the organic elements that constitute coal.
macle a mineral, aka CHIASTOLITE; -- so called from the tessellated appearance of a cross section.
macrodome a dome parallel to the longer lateral axis of an orthorhombic crystal.
magnes a lodestone. Pl. MAGNESES.
magnesia an ore of magnesium.
magnesic pertaining to, or containing, magnesium; as, magnesic oxide.
magnesite native magnesium carbonate occurring in white compact or granular masses, and also in rhombohedral crystals.
magnetite magnetic iron ore (Fe3O4), called lodestone when polar.
magnetitic of or like MAGNETITE.
malachite native hydrous carbonate of copper, usually occurring in green mammillary masses with concentric fibrous structure.
maltha a thick mineral pitch.
manganite one of the oxides of manganese. It occurs in brilliant steel-gray or iron-black crystals, also massive.
manganous of, pertaining to, designating, those compounds of manganese in which the element has a lower valence as contrasted with manganic compounds; as, manganous oxide.
marcasite a sulphide of iron resembling pyrite or common iron pyrites in composition, but differing in form; white iron pyrites.
marialite a mineral, a variety of SCAPOLITE.
massicot masticot lead protoxide, obtained as a yellow amorphous powder, the fused and crystalline form of which is called LITHARGE. It is used as a pigment.
matte a molten mixture of impure metal sulphides produced during the smelting of sulphide ores of copper, nickel, etc.
meionite an aluminosilicate mineral, the calcium- and carbonate-rich end-member of the SCAPOLITE series.
melanite a black variety of GARNET.
melanitic of or like MELANITE, a black variety of GARNET.
mellite a mineral of a honey color, found in brown coal, and partly the result of vegetable decomposition.
menilite a kind of opal, aka liver opal.
mesolite a zeolitic mineral, a hydrous silicate of alumina, lime, and soda.
metamict of or denoting the amorphous state of a substance that has lost its crystalline structure as a result of the radioactivity of uranium or thorium within it.
mica a rock-forming mineral (muscovite, biotite, lepidolite, etc) with perfect basal cleavage.
micaceous consisting of or made of mica.
micate to furnish with mica.
microlite a rare mineral of resinous luster and high specific gravity, a tantalate of calcium.
millerite nickel sulfide.
mimetite an arseniate of lead, occurring in pale yellow or brownish hexagonal crystals.
mispickel arsenical iron pyrites; aka ARSENOPYRITE.
mizzonite a SCAPOLITE richer in sodium than MEIONITE.
moldavite a green TEKTITE found in the Czech republic, thought to be the product of an ancient meteorite impact in Germany.
monazite a phosphate of cerium, lanthanum, other rare-earth elements, and thorium.
moonstone a nearly pellucid variety of feldspar, showing pearly or opaline reflections from within.
morganite a rosy pink semi-precious gem, a variety of beryl.
mullite a colourless orthorhombic aluminium silicate used in refractory porcelains and bricks. [From Island of Mull].
mundic iron pyrites, or arsenical pyrites; -- so called by the Cornish miners.
muscovite a type of mica, used as an insulator.
nacrite a clay mineral.
natrolite a zeolite occuring in groups of glassy acicular crystals, and in masses which often have a radiated structure. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and soda.
nepheline a mineral found in igneous rocks and used for ceramics and enamels.
nephelite a silicate of aluminia, soda, and potash occuring at Vesuvius, in glassy agonal crystals; also elsewhere, in grayish or greenish masses having a greasy luster, as the variety ELAEOLITE.
nephrite a kind of jade used as charm against kidney disease; kidney stone.
niccolite a mineral of a copper-red color and metallic luster; an arsenide of nickel.
nickelous of, pertaining to, or designating, those compounds of nickel in which, as contrasted with the nickelic compounds, the metal has a lower valence; as, nickelous oxide.
niobite the chief ore of niobium, an orthorhombic oxide of iron, manganese, and niobium, aka COLUMBITE.
nitratine a mineral occurring in transparent crystals, native sodium nitrate.
nosean noselite a cubic mineral, aluminum sodium silicate and sulphur.
oligist more fully oligist iron > HAEMATITE.
olivenite an olive-green hydrous arseniate of copper.
olivine a mineral, iron and magnesium silicate, used as refractory and in cements.
olivinic of or like OLIVINE, a mineral, iron and magnesium silicate.
omphacite a grass-green PYROXENE.
onyx a form of chalcedony consisting of plane layers of different colours, much used for cameos.
opal an amorphous variety of SILICA.
orpiment a yellow arsenic compound used as a pigment. [L. auripigmentum].
orthoaxis in crystallography, the orthodiagonal. Pl. ORTHOAXES.
ottrelite a micaceous mineral occurring in small scales. It is characteristic of certain crystalline schists.
oxidable capable of being converted into an oxide.
ozocerite ozokerite a waxy natural paraffin.
pagodite a soft, greenish, greyish or yellowish mineral, thought to be a variety of pinite, known particularly for its use by the Chinese for carving.
paramorph a kind of pseudomorph, in which there has been a change of physical characters without alteration of chemical composition, as the change of aragonite to calcite.
pargasite a dark green aluminous variety of amphibole, or hornblende.
passivate to coat metal with oxides to protect from corrosion.
pectolite a hydrous silicate of lime and soda, occurring in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses.
pennine penninite a mineral of the chlorite group.
pentoxide an oxide containing five atoms of oxygen in each molecule; as, phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5.
periclase isomeric crystals of magnesium oxide.
pericline a variety of ALBITE occurring as large elongated white crystals, often twinned.
peridot peridote a gemstone, a pale green variety of OLIVINE.
perimorph a crystal of one species enclosing one of another species.
perthite a variety of alkali feldspar.
perthitic relating to PERTHITE, a variety of alkali feldspar.
petroleum a general term including both oil and natural gas.
phacolite a colorless variety of CHABAZITE, a mineral of the ZEOLITE group, occurring as crystals of lenticular form.
phenacite phenakite a rare trigonal silicate of beryllium that is a rock- forming mineral occurring as colourless or white scales and prisms.
phengite a transparent stone used in ancient times for windows, probably SELENITE.
phosgene a colorless poison gas made from chlorine and carbon monoxide.
phosgenite a rare fluorescent secondary mineral consisting of lead chloro-carbonate in the form of greyish tetragonal crystals.
phyllite a metamorphosed mudstone with a silky sheen, more coarse-grained than a slate and less coarse-grained than a SCHIST.
phyllitic of or like PHYLLITE, a metamorphosed mudstone with a silky sheen.
picotite a dark spinel containing iron, magnesium and chromium.
piedmontite piemontite a dark-red mineral, a hydrated silicate of calcium, aluminium, managanese and iron.
pigeonite a monoclinic mineral of the PYROXENE group.
pinite a greyish-green or brown mineral containing amorphous aluminium and potassium sulphates.
pisolite pisolith a variety of calcite, or calcium carbonate, consisting of aggregated globular concretions about the size of a pea.
pisolitic composed of, containing, or resembling, PISOLITE, a variety of calcite.
pleonaste a dark-green to black variety of spinel.
plumbago graphite. [L. plumbago, from plumbum, lead]. Pl. PLUMBAGOS.
polianite manganese dioxide, occurring in tetragonal crystals nearly as hard as quartz.
pollucite a colourless rare mineral, hydrated caesium aluminium silicate.
polybasite a grey to black mineral consisting of a sulphide of silver, antimony, and copper in the form of platelike monoclinic crystals.
pompholyx impure zinc oxide.
potassa potassium oxide.
potstone a variety of steatite sometimes manufactured into culinary vessels.
powellite calcium molybdate.
prase a leek-green quartz.
prehnite an orthorhombic basic silicate of aluminium and calcium, usu. occurring in pale green vitreous masses.
propylite an andesite altered by SOLFATARIC action.
protore a metalliferous material prior to the formation of ore by enrichment.
proustite a sulphide of arsenic and silver of a beautiful cochineal-red color, occurring in rhombohedral crystals, and also massive; aka ruby silver.
pycnite a massive subcolumnar variety of topaz.
pyreneite a black garnet.
pyrite native iron disulphide, a brassy-yellow mineral with a metallic lustre.
pyrites either of the two common forms of iron disulphide, pyrite and marcasite (also iron pyrites). [Gk. pyrites, striking fire, from pyr, fire].
pyritic pyritical pyritous consisting of, or resembling, PYRITES.
pyritise pyritize to convert into, or replace by, PYRITES.
pyrope a variety of garnet, used as a gemstone. [Gk. pyropos fiery-eyed, from pyr, fire + ops, opos, eye, face].
pyropus = PYROPE, a fiery red gemstone, a variety of garnet.
pyroxene any of a group of silicate minerals.
pyroxenic containing pyroxene; composed chiefly of PYROXENE.
quartz the commonest rock-forming mineral, composed of silica.
quartzous of or containing QUARTZ.
quartzy of or resembling quartz > QUARTZIER, QUARTZIEST.
realgar resalgar a bright-red monoclinic mineral. [Arabic rajh al gar, powder of the cave].
regulus impure metal; an intermediate product in ore smelting. Pl. REGULI or REGULUSES.
resalgar see REALGAR.
retinite an inflammable mineral resin, usually of a yellowish brown color, found in roundish masses, sometimes with coal.
rhodolite a rose-red or pink garnet gem. [Gk. rhodo-, (red)].
rhodonite manganese spar, or silicate of manganese, a mineral occurring in crystallised and in rose-red masses.
rosaker a bright-red monoclinic mineral, now called REALGAR.
rubace rubasse a kind of ruby-red quartz.
rubellan an altered BIOTITE, mica containing iron and magnesia, generally of a black or dark green color.
rubellite a variety of tourmaline varying in color from a pale rose to a deep ruby, and containing lithium.
rubicelle a variety of ruby of a yellowish red color, from Brazil.
rubigo red iron oxide. [L. rubigo, rust]. Pl. RUBIGOS.
ruby a pure transparent red corundum; (verb) to redden; (adj.) red like a ruby > RUBIER, RUBIEST.
rutilated of quartz, containing needles of RUTILE.
rutile a tetragonal, usu. reddish-brown, mineral, titanium dioxide, that is an important ore of titanium.
sagenite a form of RUTILE.
sagenitic pertaining to SAGENITE, a form of RUTILE.
salband a crust or coating of mineral.
salic of minerals, rich in silicon and aluminum.
saltpetre saltpeter potassium nitrate, occurring as a white crystalline substance with a saline taste and used in preserving meat and as the chief constituent of gunpowder.
sanidine a variety of orthoclase feldspar common in certain eruptive rocks, such as TRACHYTE.
saponite a hydrous silicate of magnesia and alumina occurring in soft, soapy, amorphous masses.
sapphire a precious variety of CORUNDUM, usually blue.
sard sardius a deep orange-colored kind of CHALCEDONY. The pl. of SARDIUS is SARDIUSES.
sardonyx an onyx with alternate layers of sard and other mineral. [Gk. sardonyx, from Sardios, Sardian + onyx, a nail].
scandia a chemical earth, the oxide of SCANDIUM.
scapolite a grayish white mineral occuring in tetragonal crystals and in cleavable masses. It is essentially a silicate of alumina and soda.
scawtite a carbonate or silicate of calcium, occurring naturally in small crystals.
scheelite calcium tungstate, a mineral of a white or pale yellowish color and of the tetragonal system of crystallization.
schorl shorl TOURMALINE, esp. black tourmaline.
scolecite a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime, occuring in delicate radiating groups of white crystals.
scorodite a leek-green or brownish mineral occurring in orthorhombic crystals. It is a hydrous arseniate of iron.
senarmontite antimony trioxide in cubic crystalline form.
sepiolite hydrated magnesium silicate occurring as a soft white or yellowish claylike mineral; aka MEERSCHAUM.
septarium a nodule of mineral substance with a network of cracks filled with another mineral. Pl. SEPTARIA.
sericite a silky soapy potash mica.
sericitic like SERICITE, a silky soapy potash mica.
shorl see SCHORL.
siderite carbonate of iron, an important ore of iron occuring generally in cleavable masses, but also in rhombohedral crystals. It is of a light yellowish brown color. Aka CHALYBITE, sparry iron, spathic iron.
sideritic relating to SIDERITE, carbonate of iron, an important ore of iron.
silica the dioxide of silicon, occurring naturally as quartz, CRISTOBALITE, and TRIDYMITE
sinopite an iron ore, from which the pigment SINOPIA is obtained.
skutterudite a cubic mineral, cobalt arsenide.
smaltine smaltite a gray mineral of metallic luster, an arsenide of cobalt, nickel, and iron.
smaragd smaragde an old name for EMERALD.
smectite the family of minerals that are consituents of clays, including BENTONITE and SAPONITE.
smectitic of or like SMECTITE, a hydrous silicate of alumina.
sodalite a transparent or translucent vitreous cubic silicate of aluminium and sodium containing sodium chloride, usually azure-blue.
spar any translucent to transparent non-metallic mineral with clean cleavage planes; (verb) to practise boxing.
sparry of or like spar, the mineral > SPARRIER, SPARRIEST.
spathic spathose relating to SPAR.
sphaerite a hydrous aluminium phosphate.
sphene calcium titanium silicate, occurring as wedge-shaped monoclinic crystals, usu. greenish-yellow or brown, as an accessory mineral in granitic and metamorphic rocks. Aka TITANITE.
spinel spinelle any mineral of a group of aluminates, ferrates, and chromates of magnesium, iron, zinc, etc crystallizing in octahedra.
spodumene a mineral of a white to yellowish, purplish, or emerald-green color, occuring in prismatic crystals, often of great size. It is a silicate of aluminia and LITHIA.
stannite a mineral of a steel-gray or iron-black color; tin pyrites. It is a sulphide of tin, copper, and iron.
starstone asteriated sapphire.
steatite the massive white-green talc that is used in paints, ceramics, and insulation.
steatitic pertaining to, or of the nature of, STEATITE; containing or resembling steatite.
stibnite a mineral of a lead-gray color and brilliant metallic luster, occurring in prismatic crystals; a sulphide of antimony.
stilbite a common mineral of the zeolite family, a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime.
strontia strontian an earth of a white color resembling lime in appearance, and baryta in many of its properties. It is an oxide of the metal STRONTIUM.
suboxide an oxide containing a relatively small amount of oxygen, and less than the normal proportion; as, potassium suboxide, K4O.
sunstone a mineral, aka aventurine feldspar.
sylvanite a monoclinic telluride of gold and silver that occurs as silver or yellow crystals or masses with metallic lustre.
sylvin sylvine sylvite a native potassium chloride, a source of potash.
taconite a bedded ferruginous CHERT containing at least 25% iron.
talc a soft greasy white mineral, acid magnesium silicate; (verb) to sprinkle with talc > TALCED/TALCKED.
talcose talcous of or pertaining to talc; composed of, or resembling, talc.
tantalite an orthorhombic tantalate of ferrous iron, occurring as black lustrous crystals.
tanzanite a gemstone that exhibits blue, violet, or greenish color depending on the polarization of the light.
tenorite a triclinic oxide of copper that occurs in minute iron-grey scales or black masses and is an ore of copper.
tephroite an orthorhombic manganese silicate of the olivine group which forms ashy grey or reddish crystalline masses.
terbia an oxide of TERBIUM.
thenardite a whitish vitreous mineral that consists of anhydrous sodium sulphate and occurs in saline residues.
thoria a rare white earthy substance, an oxide of THORIUM.
thorite a silicate of THORIUM.
thorium a radioactive metallic element, atomic no. 90.
thulite a red ZOISITE found in Norway.
tigereye a golden brown striped pseudomorph of quartz after crocidolite.
tincal a crude native BORAX, formerly imported from Tibet. It was once the chief source of boric compounds. [Malay tingkal].
tinstone an ore of tin, CASSITERITE.
titania a mineral, an oxide of TITANIUM.
titanite a brown, green or yellow monoclinic mineral, calcium silicate and titanate. Aka SPHENE.
topaz a precious stone, a silicate of aluminium and fluorine.
topazine of or like TOPAZ.
tremolite a white variety of amphibole, or hornblende, occurring in long, bladelike crystals, and coarsely fibrous masses.
trichite a kind of crystallite resembling a bunch of hairs, common in obsidian.
trichitic relating to a TRICHITE, a kind of crystallite resembling a bunch of hairs, common in obsidian.
tridymite a high temperature form of QUARTZ which occurs as thin hexagonal tabular crystals and is found in igneous rocks and stony meteorites.
triphylite a bluish-grey rare mineral that consists of lithium iron phosphate in orthorhombic crystalline form and occurs in pegmatites.
triplite a fluophosphate of iron and manganese, of a dark brown color, generally with a fibrous, massive structure.
troilite native iron protosulphide, FeS. It is known only in meteoric irons, and is usually in imbedded nodular masses of a bronze color.
troostite a reddish or greyish variety of WILLEMITE.
tungstite a yellow earthy mineral, tungsten oxide.
turgite an iron ore.
turkies turkis turkois old names for TURQUOISE.
turquois turquoise a hydrous phosphate of alumina containing a little copper, having a blue, or bluish green, color.
tutty crude zinc oxide.
uintahite uintaite a tar-like asphalt found in the Uinta valley, Utah.
ulexite a hydrous borate of lime and soda occurring in white rounded crystalline masses.
umangite a dark-red copper selenide.
unakite a mineral.
uralite an altered mineral, HORNBLENDE after AUGITE.
uralitic pertaining to URALITE, a hornblende mineral.
uralitise uralitize to turn into URALITE.
urania a mineral, uranium dioxide.
uraninite uranium dioxide, the major ore of uranium, found most frequently in botryoidal form as PITCHBLENDE.
uranite a mineral, aka AUTUNITE or TORBERNITE.
uranylic relating to URANYL, uranium oxide.
uvarovite a green lime-chrome garnet. [From Count S. S. Uvarov, a Russian minister of education].
variscite an apple-green mineral occurring in reniform masses. It is a hydrous phosphate of alumina.
verdite a S. African green mica.
vitrain a separable constituent of bright coal, of glassy appearance.
vivianite a hydrous phosphate of iron of a blue to green color, growing darker on exposure. It occurs in monoclinic crystals, also fibrous, massive, and earthy.
vulpinite a scaly granular variety of anhydrite of a grayish white color, used for ornamental purposes.
wad wadd wadt an earthy ore of manganese.
wallsend coal of a certain quality and size; orig. coal dug at Wallsend.
wavellite a hydrous phosphate of alumina, occurring usually in hemispherical radiated forms varying in color from white to yellow, green, or black.
wellsite a kind of mineral.
wernerite the common grayish or white variety of SCAPOLITE.
willemite a silicate of zinc, usually occurring massive and of a greenish yellow color, also in reddish crystals containing manganese.
witherite barium carbonate occurring in white or gray six-sided twin crystals, and also in columnar or granular masses.
wolframite a monoclinic tungstate of iron and manganese, which occurs as black to brown crystals, blades, granules and masses, and is the chief ore of tungsten.
woodstone a striped variety of HORNSTONE, resembling wood in appearance.
wulfenite a MOLYBDATE of lead.
wurtzite a sulphide of zinc.
xenoblast a type of mineral deposit.
xenocryst a crystal or mineral grain which has been taken in by magma during its upward flow.
xenotime a native phosphate of YTTRIUM occurring in yellowish-brown tetragonal crystals. [Gk. xenos strange, in error for kenos empty, vain, and time honour, in reference to the fact that the mineral was at first thought to contain a new metal].
yag a type of synthetic garnet containing yttrium and aluminium, used in lasers and as a gem.
ytterbia ytterbium oxide.
ytterbite the mineral GADOLINITE.
yttria the oxide of the element YTTRIUM.
yu a precious jade. Pl. YUS.
zaffar zaffer zaffir zaffre an impure oxide of cobalt.
zaratite a hydrous carbonate of nickel occurring as an emerald-green incrustation on chromite.
zarnec zarnich a native sulphide of arsenic.
zeolite any of a larger group of alumino-silicate minerals.
zeolitic of or pertaining to a ZEOLITE; consisting of, or resembling, a zeolite.
zeuxite a ferriferous tourmaline. [Gk. zeuxis, joining].
zinkenite zinckenite a steel-gray metallic mineral, a sulphide of antimony and lead.
zircon a tetragonal silicate of ZIRCONIUM, occurring in variously coloured prismatic crystals, and mined as the main ore of zirconium.
zirconia zirconium dioxide, a white powder usu. obtained by heating zirconium salts and used in refractory coatings, ceramic glazes, etc.
zoisite an orthorhombic basic silicate of calcium and aluminium, usu. occurring in greyish-white or greenish prismatic crystals.
zorgite a metallic copper-lead selenite. [From Zorge in the Harz mountains].