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Now updated for CSW15. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.


acanaceous bearing prickles or thorns.
acantha (Greek) a thorn, a prickle.
acanthoid spine-shaped.
acanthous spiny, prickly.
acarpellous having no carpels.
acarpelous (US) having no carpels.
acauline having a very short stem.
acaulose having a very short stem.
acaulous having a very short stem.
acerate of, like or resembling a needle.
acerated having sharp points.
acervately (Adv.) ACERVATE, heaped.
acetabular cup-shaped; saucer-shaped.
achlamydeous without a perianth.
acicula (Lat.) a needlelike bristle or spine.
aciculum (Lat.) a bristlelike part.
acinaceous full of kernels.
acotyledonous relating to an acotyledon.
acrocarpous of mosses, having the archegonia at the top of the stem.
acrodrome of the veins in a leaf, running parallel to the edges of the leaf and fusing at the tip.
acrodromous of the veins in a leaf, running parallel to the edges of the leaf and fusing at the tip.
acrogen a cryptogam with a distinct permanent stem; a fern, a moss.
acrogenic like or relating to an acrogen, a cryptogam with a distinct permanent stem.
acrogenous like or relating to an acrogen, a cryptogam with a distinct permanent stem.
acrogenously (Adv.) ACROGENOUS, relating to an acrogen.
actinomorphic radially symmetric.
actinomorphous radially symmetric.
acuate sharp; (verb) to sharpen.
aculeated prickly; pointed; stinging.
aculeus (Lat.) a prickle growing on the bark, as in some brambles and roses.
acuminate pointed; (verb) to sharpen.
adaxial next to or towards the axis.
adnate closely attached; growing together, esp in an unusual fashion.
adnation the state of being adnate, closely attached.
aecial relating to an aecium, a cup-shaped fructification in rust fungi.
agminate gathered or clustered together.
alburnous of or pertaining to alburnum, the white and softer part of wood.
alburnum the white and softer part of wood, between the inner bark and the hard wood or duramen.
amentaceous like or composed of catkins.
amental relating to aments, catkins.
amentum (Lat.) a catkin.
amphigastrium a scalelike leaf on the ventral side of some liverworts.
amphistomatal of a leaf, having stomata on both surfaces.
amphistomatic of a leaf, having stomata on both surfaces.
amphitropous of an ovule, with its point of attachment in the middle.
anandrous without stamens.
ananthous having no flowers.
anatropous of an ovule, inverted so that the micropyle is next to the stalk.
ancipital two-edged and flattened.
ancipitous two-edged and flattened.
androclinium another name for the clinandrium, a cavity in the upper part of the column of an orchid flower that contains the anthers.
androdioecious having hermaphrodite and male flowers on separate plants.
androdioecism the state of being androdioecious, having hermaphrodite and male flowers on separate plants.
androecial relating to the androecium, the male organs (stamens) of a flower taken collectively.
androecium the male organs (stamens) of a flower taken collectively.
androgynophore another name for the androphore, a support or column on which stamens are raised.
andromonoecism having hermaphrodite and male flowers on the same plant.
androphore a support or column on which stamens are raised.
angiocarpous having the fruit (or in fungi the hymenium) within a special covering.
angustifoliate narrow-leaved.
anisomerous with unequal numbers of parts in the floral whorls.
anisophyllous of leaves, usually a pair, of differing size and shape.
anisophylly the state of being anisophyllous.
annulus (Lat.) a ring; spec. a partial veil forming a collar round the stalk in some agarics.
anther the top part of a stamen, containing pollen.
antheral relating to an anther, the top part of a stamen, containing pollen.
antherid the organ on a gametophyte plant which produces the sperm cells.
antheridial relating to an antheridium, the organ on a gametophyte plant which produces the sperm cells.
antheridium the organ on a gametophyte plant which produces the sperm cells.
anthochlore a yellow pigment in flowers.
anthocyan a glucoside plant pigment, violet in neutral, red in acid, blue in alkaline cell-sap.
anthocyanin a glucoside plant pigment, violet in neutral, red in acid, blue in alkaline cell-sap.
anthodium the inflorescence of a compound flower in which many florets are gathered into an involucrate head.
anthoid flowerlike.
anthophore the stipe when developed into an internode between calyx and corolla, as in the Pink family.
anthotaxy the arrangement of flowers on a stem or parts on a flower.
anticous on the anterior side, or away from the axis.
antisepalous opposite a sepal.
apetalous lacking petals.
apetaly the state of being without petals.
aphyllous without leaves.
aphylly absence of leaves.
apiculate of leaves, having a short point at the tip.
apocarp a flower having the carpels separate.
apocarpous either entirely or partially separate, as the carpels of a compound pistil.
apocarpy the state of having separate carpels.
apoplast the non-protoplasmic component of a plant, including the cell walls and intercellular material.
apotropous anatrophous with a ventral raphe.
arboreal relating to trees; living in trees.
arboreally (Adv.) ARBOREAL, relating to trees.
arborescence shape or growth like a tree's.
arborescent branched; branching; tree-shaped.
arborise to take on or give treelike shape.
arborize to take on or give treelike shape.
archegonium the structure on the pteridophyte prothallus that produces the sessile female gametes.
archicarp a female reproductive structure in certain types of fungi.
arillode a caruncle or false aril, from near the micropyle.
arista (Lat.) an awn (bristle on grass).
aristate awned.
arrhizal lacking roots.
ascidiate like an ascidium.
ascidium a pitcher-shaped, or flask-shaped, organ or appendage of a plant.
ascogonium the female reproductive structure of fungi.
ascus (Lat.) an enlarged cell.
asepalous without sepals.
astichous not in rows.
astomatal having no stomata.
astomatous having no stomata.
astomous having no stomata.
atropous of an ovule, straight, having the nucellus in direct continuation of the funicle.
auricled having ear-shaped appendages or lobes.
auriculate having ears or ear-shaped appendages.
auriculated having ears or ear-shaped appendages.
auriculately (Adv.) AURICULATE, having ears or ear-shaped appendages.
autoicous having male and female reproductive organs on the same plant.
awn a beard on grass (verb) to shelter with an awning
awnless without awns or beard.
awny having awns; bearded.
axil the upper angle formed where the leaf meets the stem.
axile coinciding with an axis.
azygous unpaired; odd.
azygously (Adv.) AZYGOUS, unpaired, odd.
azygy a state of being unpaired.
baccate having berries; berrylike.
baccated having berries; berrylike.
bacciform shaped like a berry.
barbate barbed, bearded.
barbated barbed, bearded.
barbule a very minute barb or beard.
barky covered with, or containing, bark.
basifixed attached by the base.
basipetal produced in succession towards the base.
basipetally (Adv.) BASIPETAL, produced in succession towards the base.
bast the inner bark, esp of lime.
bedeguar (Fr.) a soft spongy gall formed on the branches of sweetbrier and other roses.
bicapsular of plants, having two capsules or one capsule with two chambers.
bicarpellary of an ovary, having two carpels.
bifid divided into two parts.
bifidly (Adv.) BIFID, divided into two parts.
bifoliate having two leaves or leaflets.
bifoliolate having two leaflets.
bilabiate having two lips, as the corollas of certain flowers.
bilobar having two lobes.
bilobate having two lobes.
bilobated having two lobes.
bilobed having two lobes.
bilobular having two lobules.
binate growing in pairs.
binately (Adv.) BINATE, growing in pairs.
bine the flexible shoot of climbing plant, esp hop.
binervate of leaves, having two longitudinal ribs or nerves.
bipetalous having two petals.
bipinnate of a compound leaf, pinnately divided, with the leaflets themselves pinnate.
bipinnately (Adv.) BIPINNATE, of a compound leaf, pinnately divided, with the leaflets themselves pinnate.
biramose forked; with two branches.
biramous forked; with two branches.
biseriate of petals etc arranged in two rows or whorls.
biserrate doubly serrated.
bladderlike like a bladder in form.
bladdery having bladders; like a bladder.
boll the pod of a plant, as that of flax or cotton; (verb) to form pods.
bostryx (Greek) a cymose inflorescence in which each lateral axis arises on the same side.
botryose having the form of a cluster of grapes.
bough a tree branch.
boughed having boughs.
bract any reduced leaflike structure associated with a cone or flower.
bracteal having the nature or appearance of a bract.
bracted furnished with bracts.
bracteolate having bracteoles.
bracteole a small or secondary bract.
bractless destitute of bracts.
bractlet a small leaf on the axis of a flower.
branchlet a little branch.
branchy having branches.
broadleaf having broad leaves, spec. having leaves that are not needles; (noun) a broadleaf tree.
bud a rudimentary shoot of a plant; a flower while still not opened (verb) to produce buds
budless without buds.
budlike like a bud.
bulb a subterranean bud with swollen leaf-bases in which reserve materials are stored; (verb) to form bulbs.
bulbel a separable bulb formed on some flowering plants.
bulbiferous bearing bulbs.
bulbil a separable bulb formed on some flowering plants.
bulblet a small bulb.
bulbosity the state of being bulbous.
bullous blistered, puckered, bubble-like.
cactoid cactus-shaped.
caespitose growing in clusters or tufts.
caespitosely (Adv.) CAESPITOSE, growing in clusters or tufts.
calicle a row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.
calicular like a calicle, a row of small bracts at the base of the calyx.
callose part of a plant cell wall.
calycanthemy the condition of having the calyx like a corolla.
calycate of or pertaining to a cup or calyx.
calyceal of or pertaining to a cup or calyx.
calyciform having the form or appearance of a calyx.
calycinal of or pertaining to a cup or calyx.
calycine of or pertaining to a cup or calyx.
calycle a row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.
calycled having a calycle, a row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.
calycoid calyx-shaped.
calycular of or like a calycule, a row of small bracts at the base of the calyx.
calycule a row of small bracts, at the base of the calyx, on the outside.
calyculus a cuplike structure.
calypter a hood or hoodlike structure, esp that covering the spore capsule of mosses and liverworts.
calyptera a hood or hoodlike structure, esp that covering the spore capsule of mosses and liverworts.
calyptra a hood or hoodlike structure, esp that covering the spore capsule of mosses and liverworts.
calyptrogen the layer of cells on the growing tip of a root giving rise to the root cap.
calyx (Greek) the outer covering of a flower.
cambial of or like cambium, soft tissue found in trees.
cambiform shaped like cambium, soft tissue found in trees.
cambium soft tissue found in trees.
campaniform bell-shaped.
campylotropous having the ovule partly inverted and curved.
cancellate consisting of a network of veins, without intermediate parenchyma, as the leaves of certain plants; latticelike.
cancellated consisting of a network of veins, without intermediate parenchyma, as the leaves of certain plants; latticelike.
cannular like a cannula, hollow or tube-shaped.
capillaceous hairlike.
capitate having a head, knob or capitulum; shaped like a head; (noun) a bone of a primate's wrist.
capitulum (Lat.) a type of inflorescence in which there are many crowded florets, typically found in the Daisy family.
carotenoid any of a group of pigments similar to carotenes, found in plant and some animal tissues.
carpel a single female organ of a flower, which contains one or more ovules.
carpellary belonging to, forming, or containing carpels.
carpellate a flower containing carpels.
carpogonial of or like a carpogonium, an egg-bearing vessel in red algae.
carpogonium an egg-bearing vessel in red algae.
carpophore a slender prolongation of the receptacle as an axis between the carpels, as in Geranium and many umbelliferous plants.
cataphyll a rudimentary or simplified leaf.
cataphyllary of or like a cataphyll, a rudimentary or simplified leaf.
catkin a crowded spike or tuft of small unisexual flowers with reduced scalelike bracts, as in the willow, hazel, etc.
catkinate like catkin.
caudex (Lat.) the stem of a tree, esp a stem without a branch, as of a palm or a tree fern.
caudicle the stalk of the pollen masses of certain orchids.
caulescent having a leafy stem.
caulicle a short caulis or stem, esp the rudimentary stem seen in the embryo of seed.
cauliculate having a caulicle.
cauliform shaped like or resembling a stem.
cauligenous originating on the stem of a plant.
caulis (Lat.) an herbaceous or woody stem which bears leaves, and may bear flowers.
caulome a plant's stem structure as a whole.
chalazogamic relating to chalazogamy, the entry of the pollen tube through the chalaza.
chalazogamy the entry of the pollen tube through the chalaza, as opposed to porogamy.
chaliced of flowers, cuplike.
chlamydeous having a perianth.
chlorenchyma plant stem tissue containing chlorophyll.
chloroplast a plastid that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis.
chloroplastal of or like a chloroplast.
chloroplastic of or like a chloroplast.
cicinnus (Greek) a type of inflorescence.
ciliolate fringed with very short fine hairs.
cincinnate relating to a cincinnus, a type of inflorescence.
cincinnus (Greek) a type of inflorescence.
circinate rolled up with its apex in the centre, like a young fern.
circinately (Adv.) CIRCINATE, rolled up with its apex in the centre, like a young fern.
cirrate having tendrils.
cirrose bearing a tendril or tendrils; as, a cirrose leaf.
cirrus (Lat.) a type of cloud.
cladode a branch or stem with the appearance or function of a leaf.
cladodial like a cladode, a branch or stem with the appearance or function of a leaf.
cladophyll a special branch, resembling a leaf, as in the apparent foliage of the broom.
clavated club-shaped; growing gradually thicker toward the top.
clave in plants, a gradual swelling at the distal end of a structure, resembling a club.
clavulate club-shaped.
clinandrium a cavity in the upper part of the column of an orchid flower that contains the anthers.
coleoptile the first leaf in grasses and moncotyledons, a protecting plumule.
coleorhiza a sheath in the embryo of grasses, inclosing the caulicle.
coleorrhiza a sheath in the embryo of grasses, inclosing the caulicle.
collenchyma the supportive tissue of plants.
collenchymatous relating to collenchyma.
compositous composite.
conduplicate folded lengthwise with the upper surface inwards, eg on a leaf folded along the midrib.
conduplication the state of being conduplicate.
conidial relating to a conidium, a kind of reproductive cell found in certain fungi.
conidian relating to a conidium, a kind of reproductive cell found in certain fungi.
conidiophore a hypha that produces conidia.
conidiophorous of or like a conidiophore, a hypha that produces conidia.
conus (Lat.) a structure or organ resembling a cone.
corm the swollen subterranean part of a stem.
cormel a small corm produced from base of a larger one.
cormlet a small corm.
cormlike like a corm, the swollen subterranean part of a stem.
cormoid like a corm.
cormophytic like a cormophyte.
cormous producing corms.
cornhusk the outer covering of an ear of corn.
cornsilk silky threads on an ear of corn.
cornstalk a stalk of corn.
corolla (Lat.) the collective name for all the petals of a flower.
corollaceous bearing a corolla.
corollate having a corolla, the collective name for all the petals of a flower.
corolliform having the form of a corolla.
corolline of or pertaining to a corolla.
corticate having a special outer covering of a nature unlike the interior part, e.g. bark.
corticated having a special outer covering of a nature unlike the interior part, e.g. bark.
cortication the state of being corticate, having a bark.
cortina the weblike part of certain mushrooms.
corymb a flattish-topped raceme.
corymbed having a corymb, a flattish-topped raceme.
corymbose consisting of corymbs, or resembling them in form.
corymbosely (Adv.) CORYMBOSE, consisting of corymbs, or resembling them in form.
corymbous like a corymb, a flattish-topped raceme.
costate having ribs, or the appearance of ribs.
costated having ribs, or the appearance of ribs.
cotyledon an embryonic leaf within a seed which may act as a food reserve or which may grow and photosynthesize.
cotyledonal like a cotyledon.
cotyledonary relating to or having cotyledons.
cotyledonoid in the form of a cotyledon.
cotyledonous relating to or having cotyledons.
cotyliform disc-shaped with a raised rim.
crenate having a notched edge or rounded teeth; finely scalloped.
crenated having a notched edge or rounded teeth; finely scalloped.
crenately (Adv.) CRENATE, having a notched edge or rounded teeth.
cribrous perforated like a sieve.
crispate having a wavy edge.
crispated having a wavy edge.
crustaceous pertaining to, or of the nature of, a crust or hard integument, esp of lichens.
crustate covered with a crust, eg crustate lichens.
crustated covered with a crust.
crustose forming a thin, brittle crust, eg lichen.
cucullate hooded; hood-shaped.
cucullately (Adv.) CUCULLATE, hooded; hood-shaped.
cucumiform cucumber-shaped.
culm the stem of grass or sedge; (verb) to form a culm.
cupgall a cup-shaped gall in oak leaves.
curvifoliate having curved leaves.
cutin the material forming a plant cuticle.
cutinise to make into cutin.
cutinize to make into cutin.
cyathium (Lat.) the characteristic inflorescence of the spurges.
cymbiform boat-shaped.
cyme a flower cluster in which each growing point ends in a flower, the oldest flowers being at the top or centre of the cluster.
cymiferous bearing cymes.
cymoid like a cyme, a type of flower cluster.
cymose of or like a cyme.
cymosely (Adv.) CYMOSE, like a cyme.
cymous of or like a cyme.
cystolith a hard mineralized ingrowth of the wall of cells in the epidermis of certain plants.
dasyphyllous having crowded, thick or woolly leaves.
decagynian having ten pistils.
decagynous having ten pistils.
decamerous having parts in tens.
decandrian belonging to the Decandria; having ten stamens.
decandrous belonging to the Decandria; having ten stamens.
decomposite doubly or further compounded; (noun) a composite element that is itself composed of other elements.
decurrency the state of being decurrent.
dendroid treelike; (noun) a fossil marine invertebrate.
dendroidal treelike.
dentate toothed, notched.
dentated toothed; notched.
dentately (Adv.) DENTATE, toothed.
dialypetalous having the petals separate.
diandrous having two stamens.
diandry the state of being diandrous.
diarch having two xylem strands.
dicarpellary of or with two carpels.
dichasial relating to a dichasium, a flower cluster.
dichasially (Adv.) DICHASIAL, relating to a dichasium, a flower cluster.
dichasium a cymose inflorescence in which each axis in turn produces a pair of nearly equal branches.
dichlamydeous having both a calyx and a corolla.
dichotomous forking into two equal branches.
dichotomously (Adv.) DICHOTOMOUS, forking into two equal branches.
diclinism the state of having two stamens and pistils.
diclinous having the stamens and pistils in separate flowers.
dicliny the state of having two stamens and pistils.
dicyclic having two whorls or rings.
dicycly the state of being dicyclic, having two whorls or rings.
didynamy the state of having four stamens in pairs of unequal length.
diecious having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
dieciously (Adv.) DIECIOUS, having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
digitate of a leaf, divided into fingerlike parts.
digitately (Adv.) DIGITATE, of a leaf, divided into fingerlike parts.
digynian of or pertaining to the Digynia; having two styles.
digynous of or pertaining to the Digynia; having two styles.
dimerism the state of being dimerous, having two parts or members, spec. in a whorl.
dimerous having two parts or members, spec. in a whorl.
dimorphism the state of existing or occurring in two distinct forms in the same plant or species.
dioecious having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
dioeciously (Adv.) DIOECIOUS, having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
dioecy the state of having separate male and female types.
dioicous having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
dioicously (Adv.) DIOICOUS, having male and female sexual organs in different individuals.
dipetalous having two petals.
diphyllous having two leaves.
diplostemonous having two whorls of stamens, the outer alternating with the petals, the inner with the outer.
disepalous having two sepals.
disseminule a reproductive plant part.
dissepiment a partition in an ovary.
dissepimental relating to a dissepiment, a partition in an ovary.
dodecagynian having twelve styles.
dodecagynous having twelve styles.
dodecandrous having twelve stamens.
domatium (Lat.) a plant structure that harbours mites or other symbiotic organisms.
doorn (Afrikaans) a thorn.
drepanium a kind of cymose inflorescence.
duramen (Lat.) the heartwood of a tree or other woody plant.
ebracteate without bracts.
ebracteolate without bracteoles.
ecardinate without hinges.
ecarinate without a keel.
ecostate of a leaf, having no ribs or nerves.
enantiostylous showing enantiostyly, a dimorphous condition in which the style projects at one side or the other in different flowers.
enantiostyly a dimorphous condition in which the style projects at one side or the other in different flowers.
enation an outgrowth from the surface of an organ (eg from a leaf).
endarch having the protoxylem on the inner edge.
endoblast the inner cell-layer of a gastrula.
endoblastic relating to the endoblast.
endochylous having internal water-storing cells.
endodermis a close-set sheath, one cell thick, enclosing the central cylinder in plants.
endorhizal having the radicle of the embryo enclosed in a sheath.
endothecial relating to the endothecium.
endothecium the inner lining of a mature anther.
enneandrian of the class Enneandria, having nine stamens.
enneandrous of the class Enneandria, having nine stamens.
ensate sword-shaped.
ensiform sword-shaped.
epiblem the outermost cell layer of a root.
epicalyx bracts close to and resembling the calyx.
epicotyl the part of an embryo or seedling stem above the cotyledon(s).
epipetalous inserted or growing on a petal or petals.
episepalous inserted or growing on a sepal or sepals.
epithem a group of water-secreting cells in some leaves.
epithema (Greek) a group of water-secreting cells in some leaves.
equisetiform having the form of an equisetum, a horsetail.
ericoid with heatherlike leaves.
erostrate without a beak.
estipulate without stipules.
etiolin a yellow pigment found in etiolated plants.
eucyclic having the same number of floral leaves in each whorl.
eudicotyledon an angiosperm having two cotyledons in the seed.
eustele when a plant's vascular tissue develops in discrete bundles, it is said to have a eustele.
exciple a rim around the hymenium of various lichens.
exodermal relating to the exodermis, the outer cortex layer of a root.
exodermis the outer cortex layer of a root.
exogen a plant whose stem grows by the development of new material on the outside.
exstipulate without stipules.
exsuccous lacking sap.
extrafloral of nectaries borne outside flowers.
fibril a small fibre.
fibrilar of or pertaining to fibrils or fibers.
filaceous composed of threads.
fissate deeply split.
floret a small flower, esp of a composite plant.
floricane the fruiting stem of a plant.
floriferous bearing flowers.
floriferousness the state of being floriferous.
floscular composed of floscules, florets.
floscule a floret.
flosculous composed of floscules or florets.
flower the reproductive structure of seed-bearing plants (verb) to put forth flowers
floweret a small flower; a floret.
flowerette a small flower; a floret.
foliage the growth of leaves of a plant.
foliar relating to leaves, resembling leaves.
foliolate composed of or relating to leaflets.
foliole one of the distinct parts of a compound leaf; a leaflet.
foliolose composed of or relating to leaflets.
foliose leafy, leaflike.
folious leafy, leaflike.
folium (Lat.) a leaf, lamina or lamella.
footstalk the stalk of a leaf or a flower.
frond a type of leaf.
frondage fronds collectively.
fronded furnished with fronds.
frondiferous bearing or producing fronds.
frondless without fronds.
frondous leafy or like a leaf.
fructification the reproductive organs or fruit of a plant.
frutescent like or resembling a shrub.
fruticose shrubby.
galeiform helmet-shaped.
gametophore the part of a plant that bears the reproductive organs.
gametophoric of or like a gametophore, the part of a plant that bears the reproductive organs.
gamophyllous with perianth leaves united.
gamosepalous with sepals partly united.
gemma (Lat.) a bud from which a new plant can grow.
gemmaceous budlike, relating to gemmae.
gemmiferous bearing gemmae.
gemmiparous reproducing by gemmae.
gemmiparously (Adv.) GEMMIPAROUS, reproducing by gemmae.
gemmulation formation of gemmules.
gemmule a little leaf bud, as the plumule between the cotyledons.
germplasm plant genetic material.
glandiform gland-shaped; acorn-shaped.
glaucescence the state of being glaucescent, somewhat glaucous.
glochid (Greek) a barbed hair on some plants, like cactus.
glomerulate of a glomerule, a cluster of short-stalked flowers.
glomerule a cluster of short-stalked flowers.
glumaceous like a glume, thin, brownish and papery.
glume an outer sterile bract enclosing the spikelet in grasses.
glumelike like a glume, an outer sterile bract enclosing the spikelet in grasses.
glumella the membranous inner bract of a grass flower, aka the palea.
gonidium an algal cell in a lichen.
gonophore in certain flowers, an elongate structure bearing the stamens and pistil.
gonophoric relating to a gonophore, in certain flowers, an elongate structure bearing the stamens and pistil.
gonophorous relating to a gonophore, in certain flowers, an elongate structure bearing the stamens and pistil.
granum (Lat.) a part of a plant chloroplast.
grumose clustered in grains at intervals.
grumous clustered in grains at intervals.
gynandrous with stamen concrescent with the carpel, as in orchids.
gynandry the state of being gynandrous.
gynecic relating to a gynecium, the pistil of a flower.
gynecium (US) the female organs (pistils) of a flower, taken collectively.
gynodioecious having hermaphrodite and female flowers on different plants.
gynodioecism the state of being gynodioecious.
gynoecium the female organs (pistils) of a flower, taken collectively.
gynomonoecious having hermaphrodite and female flowers on the same plant.
gynomonoecism the state of being gynomonoecious.
gynophore the pedicel raising the pistil or ovary above the stamens, as in the passion flower.
gynophoric of or like a gynophore, a pedicel raising the pistil or ovary above the stamens.
gynostemium the central reproductive stalk of an orchid, which consists of a stamen and pistil fused together.
hadrome the conducting tissue of the xylem.
halm a strawy stem.
hamulate bearing a small hook at the end.
hamulose bearing a small hook at the end.
hamulous bearing a small hook at the end.
haplostemonous with one whorl of stamens.
hapteron a holdfast or attachment organ of a plant thallus.
haulm a strawy stem.
haulmy of or like haulms, stems.
haustorial having a haustorium, a suckerlike rootlet.
haustorium (Lat.) one of the suckerlike rootlets of such plants as the dodder and ivy.
heptagynous belonging to the Heptagynia, having seven styles.
heptamerous having seven divisions; having the parts of flower in sevens.
heptandrous having seven stamens.
heterostyled having styles of different length in different flowers.
heterostylism the state of having styles of different lengths in different flowers.
heterostylous having styles of different length in different flowers.
heterostyly the state of having styles of different length in different flowers.
hexagynian having six pistils.
hexagynous having six pistils.
hexamerism the state of being hexamerous.
hexandrian having six stamens.
hexandrous having six stamens.
hexarch of a vascular bundle, having six strands of xylem, formed from six points of origin.
highbush a shrub of the genus Vaccinium of eastern North America.
hilum (Lat.) the scar on a seed where it joined its stalk.
hilus (Lat.) the scar on a seed where it joined its stalk.
hispid rough with or covered with strong hairs or bristles.
holdfast the anchoring base of an alga.
homochlamydeous with calyx and corolla similar.
homogamous of a flower, having the anthers and stigmas maturing together, so as to permit self-fertilization.
homogamy the condition of being homogamous, having the anthers and stigmas maturing together, so as to permit self-fertilization.
homogonous exhibiting homogony, the condition of having flowers of equal size.
homogonously (Adv.) HOMOGONOUS, exhibiting homogony, the condition of having flowers of equal size.
homogony the condition of having flowers of equal size.
homomorphy similarity in form, as of the flowers of a plant.
homostyly in flowers, the existence of styles of only one length.
homothallism the state of having only one type of mycelium.
homothally the state of having only one type of mycelium.
hydathode an epidermal water-excreting organ.
hypocotyl the stem of a plant below the cotyledons.
hypocotylous of or like a hypocotyl, the stem of a plant below the cotyledons.
hypoderma a layer of tissue beneath the epidermis in plants, and performing the physiological function of strengthening the epidermal tissue.
hypogynous growing from beneath the ovary; having the other floral parts below the ovary.
hypogyny the state of having floral parts beneath the ovary.
hypotheca the inner and younger layer of the cell wall of a diatom.
hypsophyll a bract.
hypsophyllary of or like a hypsophyll, a bract.
immarginate without a distinct margin.
imparipinnate pinnate with the rachis terminated by a single leaflet or tendril.
incubous having the leaves so placed that the upper part of each one covers the base of the leaf next above it, as in liverworts.
induplicate folded inwards.
induplicated folded inwards.
induviae (Lat.) withered leaves which persist on plants.
induvial relating to induviae, withered leaves persistent on the stems of plants.
induviate covered with induviae, as the upper part of the trunk of a palm tree.
inerm without thorns.
inermous without thorns.
inflorescence a cluster of flowers.
inflorescent of or like an inflorescence, a cluster of flowers.
internode the space between two nodes or points of the stem from which the leaves properly arise.
involucel a small secondary bract (as on Queen Anne's lace).
involucellate having an involucel.
involucellated having an involucel.
involucellum a whorl or set of bracts around a flower, umbel, or head.
involucral pertaining to, possessing, or like, an involucrum.
involucre a whorl or set of bracts around a flower, umbel, or head.
involucrum (Lat.) a whorl or set of bracts around a flower, umbel, or head.
isogony an equivalent growth of parts.
isomerous having the same number of parts (esp in floral whorls).
isostemonous having as many stamens as petals.
jugate having leaflets arranged in pairs.
jugum (Lat.) a pair of leaflets in a pinnate leaf.
kecks the hollow stalk of an umbelliferous plant, such as the cow parsnip or the hemlock.
kecksy the hollow stalk of an umbelliferous plant, such as the cow parsnip or the hemlock.
keksye the hollow stalk of an umbelliferous plant, such as the cow parsnip or the hemlock.
kex the hollow stalk of an umbelliferous plant, such as the cow parsnip or the hemlock.
labellate of or like a labellum, the lower or apparently anterior petal of an orchidaceous flower.
labelloid liplike.
labellum (Lat.) the lower or apparently anterior petal of an orchidaceous flower, often of a very curious shape.
labiate of a corolla or calyx, two-lipped; (noun) a member of the Labiatae family of plants.
labiated of a corolla or calyx, two-lipped.
lacinia (Lat.) a long narrow lobe in a leaf.
laciniate cut into narrow lobes; finely fringed.
laciniated cut into narrow lobes; finely fringed.
laciniation the state of being laciniate, finely fringed.
lanated having or consisting of a woolly covering of hairs.
lanceolar lanceolate.
latex (Lat.) the milky juice of some plants.
laticifer a cell or group of cells containing latex.
latiseptate having a broad partition.
leaf a usually green, flattened organ of vascular plants (verb) to turn pages rapidly
leafbud a bud from which a leaf unfolds.
leafstalk the stalk or petiole which supports a leaf.
lenticel a breathing pore in bark.
lenticellate of or like a lenticel, a breathing pore in bark.
lepra (Lat.) leprosy; a mealy substance on some plants.
leprose scaly, scurfy.
leptome the conducting tissue of the phloem.
leptophyllous having long thin leaves.
leucoplast a colorless plastid in the cytoplasm of plant cells around which starch collects.
lignan a beneficial substance found in plants.
ligular pertaining to a ligule, a thin outgrowth at the junction of a leaf and leafstalk.
ligulate resembling or shaped like a strap.
ligulated resembling or shaped like a strap.
ligule a thin outgrowth at the junction of a leaf and leafstalk.
ligulifloral having strap-shaped flowers.
limby having many large branches.
lipidoplast a small particle in plant cytoplasm, esp that of seeds, in which fat is stored.
lithocyst a cell containing a cystolith, a hard mineralized ingrowth of the wall of cells in the epidermis of certain plants.
lobation lobing.
lobulose having lobules.
locellate divided into small compartments.
locule any of a number of small cavities or cells separated from one another by septa; esp a cavity of an ovary or anther.
loculed having loculi, small hollows.
locusta (Lat.) the spikelet or flower cluster of grasses.
locustal of or like a locusta, the spikelet or flower cluster of grasses.
lodicula (Lat.) a green or white scale forming the lowest part of a grass flower.
lodicule a green or white scale forming the lowest part of a grass flower.
lomentaceous bearing lomenta.
megaphyll a relatively large type of leaf produced by eg ferns.
meristem embryonic plant tissue capable of growth by division.
meristematic of or like a meristem.
mesophyl the photosynthetic tissue of a green plant borne beneath the epidermis.
mesophyll the photosynthetic tissue of a green plant borne beneath the epidermis.
mesophyllic of or like a mesophyll.
mesophyllous of or like a mesophyll.
mestom conductive tissue associated with parenchyma.
mestome conductive tissue associated with parenchyma.
metaxylem a part of the primary xylem.
microphyll a type of (usually small) leaf having a single medial vein, characteristic of the lycophytes (clubmosses, spike mosses, and quillworts).
microphyllous having minute leaves.
micropyle a micropore in ovum for spermatozoon; a minute pollen opening in a plant ovule.
microsporophyll a specialised leaf bearing or subtending one or more microsporangia.
midrib the rib along the middle of a leaf.
mitriform mitre-shaped.
monandrous having only one stamen.
monanthous of certain plants, having or producing only one flower.
monaxial having only one axis; developing along a single line.
monaxonic having only one axis; developing along a single line.
monocarpellary of or with only one carpel.
monochasial of or like a monochasium, a cyme with a single main stem.
monochasium a cyme with a single main stem.
monochlamydeous having a one-whorled perianth.
monoclinism the state of being monoclinous.
monoclinous having pistils and stamens in same flower.
monoecy the condition of being monecian, having both male and female reproductive organs.
monomerous of flowers, having whorls consisting of only one member.
monopetalous having petals united.
monophyllous having or consisting of only one leaf or leaflike part.
monopodial having a monopodium or a single and continuous axis, as a birchen twig or a cornstalk.
monopodially (Adv.) MONOPODIAL, having a monopodium or a single and continuous axis, as a birchen twig or a cornstalk.
monopodium a stem in which the growth is continued from year to year by the same growing point.
monostylous having only one style.
monothecal having only one theca.
monothecous having only one theca.
mucro (Lat.) a minute abrupt point, as of a leaf.
mucronate terminating in a sharp point, as a mucronate leaf.
mucronated terminating in a sharp point.
mucronation the state of being mucronate.
multifoliolate having many folioles.
multijugate consisting of many pairs of leaflets.
multijugous consisting of many pairs of leaflets.
multilobe having more than one lobe; (noun) something with more than one lobe.
muricate rough or warty with short sharp points.
muricated rough or warty with short sharp points.
muriform with cells arranged like bricks in a wall.
muticate having no point or awn.
muticous having no point or awn.
nectarial of or pertaining to the nectary of a plant.
nectaried having a nectary.
nectary a gland in a flower which produces sugary fluid (nectar) to attract insects.
nervation the arrangement of nerves and veins, esp those of leaves.
nervature the arrangement of nerves and veins, esp those of leaves.
nervuration the state of having nervures.
nervure one of the vascular ridges that form the framework of a leaf.
neuration the arrangement of nerves and veins, esp those of leaves.
nodulated having or characterized by nodular growths, esp root nodules.
nucellar relating to the nucellus, the mass of tissues within the integuments of a plant's ovule, containing the embryo sac.
nucellus (Lat.) the mass of tissues within the integuments of a plant's ovule, containing the embryo sac.
nudicaul having a leafless stem.
nudicaulous having a leafless stem.
obcordate of eg a leaf, inversely heart-shaped and attached by the point.
oblanceolate of eg a leaf, like a lance-head reversed.
obovate of a leaf, egg-shaped in outline, with the narrow end next to the base.
obovately (Adv.) OBOVATE, inversely ovate.
obvolute of a leaf etc., having a margin that alternately overlaps and is overlapped by that of an opposing leaf.
obvoluted of a leaf etc., having a margin that alternately overlaps and is overlapped by that of an opposing leaf.
obvolution the state of being obvolute, having a margin that alternately overlaps and is overlapped by that of an opposing leaf.
obvolutive of a leaf etc., having a margin that alternately overlaps and is overlapped by that of an opposing leaf.
obvolvent enwrapping; curved downward or inward.
ochrea (Lat.) a sheath of stipules enclosing the leafstalks of certain plants.
ochreate having an ochrea, a scarious sheath round a stem.
ocrea (Lat.) a sheath of stipules enclosing the leafstalks of certain plants.
ocreate having an ocrea, a scarious sheath round a stem.
octastichous in eight rows.
octofid cleft or separated into eight segments, as a calyx.
octogynous having eight pistils.
octopetalous having eight petals.
octosepalous having eight sepals.
octostichous in eight rows.
oligomerous having few parts; having fewer members than the other whorls of a flower.
oogonial relating to oogonia, the female reproductive organs in fungi or seaweed.
oogonium the female reproductive organ in fungi or seaweed.
orthostichy a straight row, eg of leaves vertically over one another on an axis.
orthotropous growing straight, so that the micropyle is opposite the stalk.
pachycarpous having a thick pericarp.
palea (Lat.) the membranous inner bract of a grass flower.
paleaceous chaffy; like or resembling chaff.
paleal relating to the palea, the membranous inner bract of a grass flower.
palet the membranous inner bract of a grass flower.
palmate hand-shaped.
palmated hand-shaped.
palmately (Adv.) PALMATE, hand-shaped.
palmatifid shaped like the hand, with the divisions extending about halfway down.
palmation all or part of a palmate structure.
palmatipartite palmately divided rather more than halfway.
palmatisect deeply cut in a palmate manner.
pandurate fiddle-shaped, eg of leaves.
pandurated fiddle-shaped, eg of leaves.
panduriform fiddle-shaped, eg of leaves.
panicle a loose much-branched flower-head, esp of grasses.
panicled furnished with, arranged in, or like, panicles.
paniculate having or arranged in panicles.
paniculated having or arranged in panicles.
paniculately (Adv.) PANICULATE, having or arranged in panicles.
pappose furnished with a pappus; downy.
pappous furnished with a pappus; downy.
parastichous characterised by parastichy, i.e. having a secondary helix joining leaf-bases on an axis.
parastichy a secondary helix joining leaf-bases on an axis, visible where the leaves are crowded together, eg the scales of a pine cone.
parecious of certain mosses, having the male and female reproductive organs near one another.
parenchyma the ordinary soft thin-walled tissue of plants, not differentiated into conducting or mechanical tissue.
parenchymal of or like a parenchyma, a generalized cell or tissue in a plant.
parenchymatous relating to parenchyma, a generalized cell or tissue in a plant.
paripinnate pinnate without a terminal leaflet.
paroecious of certain mosses, having the male and female reproductive organs near one another.
paroicous of certain mosses, having the male and female reproductive organs near one another.
partite divided; (esp of plant leaves) cut nearly to the base.
parvifoliate of plants, having small leaves in comparison with the size of the stem.
pedatifid of a leaf, cleft in a pedate manner, but having the lobes distinctly connected at the base.
pedicel a short stalk.
pedicle a short stalk.
pediculate stalked; (noun) any of the angler fishes, whose pectoral fins have a wristlike articulation.
pediculated stalked.
peduncle the stalk of an infloresence or solitary flower.
peduncled having a peduncle.
peduncular of or pertaining to a peduncle.
pedunculate having a peduncle or stalk.
pedunculation the state of being pedunculate.
peloria (Greek) abnormal symmetry of structure in flowers normally zygomorphic (eg toadflax).
pelorian showing peloria, an abnormal regularity in flowers.
peloric showing peloria, an abnormal regularity in flowers.
pelorism abnormal symmetry of structure in flowers normally zygomorphic (eg toadflax).
pelorized affected with peloria.
pelory abnormal symmetry of structure in flowers normally zygomorphic (eg toadflax).
peltate having the stalk attached to the edge but near the middle of the undersurface.
peltately (Adv.) PELTATE, having the stalk attached to the edge but near the middle of the undersurface.
peltation the state of being peltate.
pentadelphous having five bundles of stamens; united in five bundles.
pentagynous relating to the Pentagynia, an order of plants with five pistils.
pentandrian relating to the Pentandria, a class of plants with five stamens.
pentandrous relating to the Pentandria, a class of plants with five stamens.
pentosan a complex carbohydrate found in cellulose.
percurrent extending the whole length (of a leaf).
perfoliation the state of being perfoliate.
perianth the external part of a flower, including corolla and calyx.
periblem the layer of primary meristem from which the cortex is formed, covering the plerome.
perichaetial relating to the perichaetium, a sheath or cluster of leaves around the archegonia in mosses and liverworts.
perichaetium a sheath or cluster of leaves around the archegonia in mosses and liverworts.
perichylous having water-storing tissue outside the green tissue.
pericycle the outermost layer or layers of the central cylinder.
pericyclic relating to the pericycle, the outermost layer or layers of the central cylinder.
periderm the outer layer of bark.
peridermal relating to the periderm, the outer layer of bark.
peridermic relating to the periderm, the outer layer of bark.
peridial relating to a peridium, the envelope or coat of certain fungi.
peridium the envelope or coat of certain fungi, such as the puffballs and earthstars.
perigone any organ inclosing the essential organs of a flower.
perigonial of or like a perigone, an organ inclosing the essential organs of a flower; a perianth.
perigonium any organ inclosing the essential organs of a flower.
perigynous of a flower, having the perianth and stamens inserted on a flat or cup-shaped structure which arises below, and is not fused to, the ovary.
perigyny the state of having the ovary free, but the petals and stamens borne on the calyx.
perisperm the albumen of a seed, esp that portion which is formed outside of the embryo sac.
perispermal of or like a perisperm.
perispermic of or like a perisperm.
petal a leaflike part of a corolla.
petaled having petals.
petaline of or like a petal.
petalled having petals.
petallike like a petal.
petaloid of or like a petal.
petalomania an abnormal increase in number of petals.
petalous having petals.
petiolar of or like a petiole, a leafstalk.
petiolate having a petiole, a leafstalk.
petiolated having a petiole, a leafstalk.
petiole the footstalk of a leaf, connecting the blade with the stem.
petioled having a petiole, a leafstalk.
petiolule a small petiole, or the petiole of a leaflet.
pezizoid resembling a fungus of the genus Peziza; having a cuplike form.
phellem (Greek) cork.
phelloderm a layer of green parenchimatous cells formed on the inner side of the phellogen, the tissue of young cells which produces cork cells.
phellodermal relating to the phelloderm.
phellogen the tissue of young cells which produces cork cells.
phellogenetic of or like phellogen, the tissue of young cells which produces cork cells.
phellogenic of or like phellogen, the tissue of young cells which produces cork cells.
phloem (Greek) the nutrient-conducting tissue of vascular plants.
phyllary an involucral bract.
phyllid the leaf of a liverwort or moss.
phylloclad another name for a cladode.
phylloclade another name for a cladode.
phyllode a flattened stem functioning as leaf.
phyllodial relating to a phyllode, a flattened stem functioning as leaf.
phyllodium a petiole dilated into the form of a blade, and usually with vertical edges, as in the Australian acacias.
phyllody the transformation of flower parts into leaves.
phylloid a leaflike assimilatory organ in brown algae.
phyllome any leaf or homologue of a leaf.
phyllomic of or like a phyllome, a leaf or homologue of a leaf.
phyllosphere the surface of a leaf considered as a habitat, esp for microorganisms.
phyllotactic of or relating to phyllotaxis, the arrangement of leaves on the stem.
phyllotactical of or relating to phyllotaxis, the arrangement of leaves on the stem.
phyllotaxis the arrangement of leaves on a stem and in relation to one another.
phyllotaxy the arrangement of leaves on a stem and in relation to one another.
phytolith a microscopic particle in plants.
phyton (Greek) the smallest part of a plant that when cut off may grow into a new plant.
phytonic relating to a phyton, one of the parts which by their repetition make up a flowering plant.
pileate of a mushroom, having a pileus, an umbrella-shaped portion.
pileated of a mushroom, having a pileus, an umbrella-shaped portion.
pileorhiza a cap of cells which covers the growing extremity of a root, aka rootcap.
pilose having scattered soft or moderately stiff hairs.
pilosity the state of being pilose; hairiness.
pilous having scattered soft or moderately stiff hairs.
pinnate like a feather; with leaflets on either side of a leafstalk.
pinnated like a feather; with leaflets on either side of a leafstalk.
pinnately (Adv.) PINNATE, with leaflets on either side of a leafstalk.
pinnatifid of leaves, pinnately cut roughly halfway down.
pinnatifidly (Adv.) PINNATIFID, pinnately cut roughly halfway down.
pinnation the state of being pinnate.
pinnatipartite pinnately lobed half to two thirds the depth of the lamina.
pinnula (Lat.) one of the small divisions of a decompound frond or leaf.
pinnular like a pinnula, one of the small divisions of a decompound frond or leaf.
pinnulate having each pinna subdivided.
pinnulated having each pinna subdivided.
pinnule one of the small divisions of a decompound frond or leaf.
pistil the ovary of a flower, with its style and stigma.
pistillar pistillary of a flower, having pistils.
pistillate having a pistil or pistils; usually said of flowers having pistils but no stamens.
pistillode an abortive pistil.
pithlike like pith.
plastid a cytoplasmic structure in plant cells having various functions.
plastidial relating to a plastid.
pleiochasium a cymose inflorescence in which each branch bears more than two lateral branches.
pleiomerous of a floral whorl, having more than the normal number of parts.
pleiomery the state of being pleiomerous, having more than the normal number of parts.
plerome (Greek) the central part of the apical meristem.
pneumathode a band or pore or aerating tissue, esp along the stipes of ferns.
pneumatophore an upward-growing respiratory root in swamp plants.
podlike like a pod.
podocarp a stem, or footstalk, supporting the fruit.
polyadelphous of stamens, united in several bundles; having the stamens so united.
polyarch having many xylem strands.
polycarpellary of a plant gynoecium, having or consisting of many carpels.
polychasium a cymose inflorescence in which three or more branches arise from each node.
polycot (Short for) a polycotyledon, a plant with more than two cotyledons.
polycotyledon any of various plants, esp gymnosperms, that have or appear to have more than two cotyledons.
polymerous consisting of many parts or segments.
polymery the condition of being polymerous, consisting of many parts or segments.
polyphyllous having the perianth leaves free.
polysepalous having separate sepals.
posticous designating the back or ventral portion of a stem or leaf.
prefloration the manner in which the petals and sepals are folded in the flower-bud.
prefoliation the manner in which the leaf is folded within the leaf bud, vernation.
primine the outer coat of an ovule.
procambial relating to procambium, the young tissue of a fibrovascular bundle before its component cells have begun to be differentiated.
procambium the young tissue of a fibrovascular bundle before its component cells have begun to be differentiated.
propagule a body with the capacity to give rise to a new plant eg. seed, spore, bulbil, fragment etc.
propagulum a body with the capacity to give rise to a new plant eg. seed, spore, bulbil, fragment etc.
prophyll a bracteole.
prosenchyma supporting plant tissue containing little protoplasm.
prosenchymatous relating to prosenchyma, supporting plant tissue containing little protoplasm.
protoderm the dermatogen, the nascent epidermis, or external cuticle of plants in a forming condition.
protophloem the first-formed phloem that develops from procambium, usually associated with a region of rapid growth.
protostele a stele in which the vascular tissue forms a solid core, with centrally placed xylem surrounded by phloem.
protostelic of or like a protostele.
protoxylem the first part of the xylem to be formed.
pruina (Lat.) a powdery bloom or waxy secretion.
pruinose having a frosted look; bearing whitish dust.
pseudaxis a sympodium, an axis made up of the basal portions of several branches.
pseudobulb a swollen stem internode in some orchids.
pulvinule the pulvinus of a leaflet.
pulvinus (Lat.) a swelling at the base of a stalk or leaf or leaflet, sometimes glandular or responsive to touch.
pyxidium a capsule that opens by a transverse circular split.
quadrifarious arranged in four close-set rows along the stem.
quadrifid four-part (as with a leaf).
quadrifoliate having four leaves.
quinate consisting of five leaflets.
quinquefoliate having five leaves.
raceme a kind of inflorescence with flowers borne on footstalks up a central stem, as in lily of valley.
racemed arranged in a raceme, or in racemes.
racemoid shaped like a raceme, a kind of inflorescence with flowers borne on footstalks up a central stem, as in lily of valley.
racemose growing in the form of a raceme as racemose berries or flowers.
racemosely (Adv.) RACEMOSE, growing in the form of a raceme as racemose berries or flowers.
racemous growing in the form of a raceme as racemose berries or flowers.
racemously (Adv.) RACEMOUS, growing in the form of a raceme as racemose berries or flowers.
rachilla (Lat.) the axis of a grass spikelet.
radicel a rootlike organ or part.
radicellose like a radicel, a rootlike organ or part.
radicle a rootlike organ or part.
radicular of or pertaining to roots.
radicule a rootlike organ or part.
radiculose producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.
ramal of or pertaining to a ramus or branch.
rameal of or pertaining to a ramus or branch.
ramentum (Lat.) thin brownish chaffy scales upon the leaves or young shoots of some plants, esp upon the petioles and leaves of ferns.
rameous of or pertaining to a ramus or branch.
ramose branched, as the stem or root of a plant.
ramosely (Adv.) RAMOSE, branched, as the stem or root of a plant.
ramosity the state of being ramose, branched.
ramous branched, as the stem or root of a plant.
ramously (Adv.) RAMOUS, branched.
ramular relating to a ramulus, a small branch.
ramulose having many small branches, or ramuli.
ramulous having many small branches, or ramuli.
ramulus (Lat.) a small branch.
ramus (Lat.) a branch of anything.
raphide a needlelike crystal, usually of calcium oxalate, occurring in plant cells.
raphis (Greek) a needlelike crystal, usually of calcium oxalate, occurring in plant cells.
retuse with the tip blunt and broadly notched.
revolute rolled backwards at the edges.
rhachilla (Lat.) the axis of a grass spikelet.
rhaphide a needlelike crystal, usually of calcium oxalate, occurring in plant cells.
rhaphis (Greek) a needlelike crystal, usually of calcium oxalate, occurring in plant cells.
rhipidium a fan-shaped cymose inflorescence.
rhizine a lichen rhizoid.
rhizocarpic of or like a rhizocarp.
rhizocarpous of or like a rhizocarp.
rhizogenic producing or growing roots.
rhizoid a short hairlike organ in the lower plants, serving as a root.
rhizoidal relating to a rhizoid, a short hairlike organ in the lower plants, serving as a root.
rhizoma (Greek) a rootstock, an underground stem producing roots and leafy shoots.
rhizomatous having the form of a rhizome.
rhizome (Greek) a rootstock, an underground stem producing roots and leafy shoots.
rhizomic relating to a rhizome, a horizontal underground stem.
rhizomorph a rootlike mass of fungal hyphae.
rhizomorphous having the form of a root.
rhizophore a specialised leafless stem which bears roots, as in Selaginella.
rhizoplane the surface of a root together with the soil adhering to it.
rhytidome the bark external to the last formed periderm.
rootball the mass of a plant's roots and surrounding soil.
rootcap a layer of cells at the root tip.
rootlet a small root.
rootlike like a root.
rootstalk an underground stem producing roots and leafy shoots, aka rhizome.
rootstock a rhizome, esp if short, thick, and more or less erect.
rosebud the bud of the rose.
rosula (Lat.) a leaf-rosette.
runcinate pinnately cut with the lobes pointing downwards, as the leaf of the dandelion.
saccate having the form of a sack or pouch.
sagittiform shaped like an arrowhead.
salverform of a corolla, having a long tube with terminal petals spread out flat.
samariform like a samara in shape.
sapwood the soft tissue beneath the bark of a tree.
sarment a long whiplike runner, leafless except at the tip.
sarmentaceous having sarmenta or runners; creeping.
sarmentose producing long, flexuose runners or stolons.
sarmentous producing long, flexuose runners or stolons.
sarmentum (Lat.) a long whiplike runner, leafless except at the tip.
scapose bearing stalks.
sclerophyllous having sclerophylls, hard leathery leaves.
sclerophylly the possession of sclerophylls.
sclerotial of or like a sclerotium.
sclerotioid of, relating to, or resembling a sclerotium.
secund esp. of the flowers in an inflorescence, arranged on or directed towards one side only.
secundly (Adv.) SECUND, on one side only.
seedhead a seed-containing part of some plants that develops after flowering or fruiting.
sepal the outermost structures of a flower.
sepaled having one or more sepals.
sepaline of the form of sepals.
sepalled having one or more sepals.
sepalody the metamorphosis of other floral organs into sepals or sepaloid bodies.
sepaloid of the form of sepals.
sepalous having sepals.
septemfid split into seven.
sericeous of leaves, covered with fine silky hairs.
setaceous set with, or consisting of, bristles.
setaceously (Adv.) SETACEOUS, bristly.
sexfid cleft in six.
shrublike resembling a shrub.
sideshoot a shoot growing off the side of a main stem.
siphonostele the cylinder of conducting tissue surrounding a central core of pith in certain stems.
siphonostelic of or like a siphonostele, the cylinder of conducting tissue surrounding a central core of pith in certain stems.
sobole (Lat.) a shoot, esp from near the base of a plant; a creeping underground stem.
soboliferous bearing shoots or suckers.
soredial relating to a soredium, a small vegetative reproduction body in lichen.
sorediate bearing soredia, small vegetative reproduction bodies in lichen.
soredium (Lat.) a small vegetative reproduction body in lichen.
spadicifloral having flowers in a spathe, as do arum, palms, and some other monocotyledons.
spadix (Lat.) a flower-spike covered by large leaf, as of arum plant.
spathaceous having a spathe.
spathal furnished with a spathe; as, spathal flowers.
spathe a large sheath-like bract or leaf, as of arum plant.
spathed having a spathe or calyx like a sheath.
spermatial of or like a spermatium, one of the motionless spermatozoids in the conceptacles of certain fungi.
spermatium one of the motionless spermatozoids in the conceptacles of certain fungi.
spermogone a flask-shaped structure in some fungi.
spermogonium a flask-shaped structure in some fungi.
spikelet an ear of corn; a type of inflorescence.
spinate bearing a spine; in the form of a spine.
spinose full of spines; thorny.
spinosely (Adv.) SPINOSE, full of spines.
spinosity thorniness.
spinous full of spines; thorny.
spinula (Lat.) a small spine.
spinulate in the form of a spinule, a small spine.
spinule a small spine.
spinulose covered with small spines.
spinulous covered with small spines.
sporophyl a leaf that bears sporangia.
sporophyll a leaf that bears sporangia.
squamella a little scale.
squamula a little scale.
squarrose rough with projecting or deflexed scales, bracts, etc.
stalkless without a stalk.
stamen (Lat.) the male part of the flower, made up of a pollen-producing anther on a stalk.
stamened having stamens.
staminal of or pertaining to stamens or stamina.
staminate furnished with stamens; producing stamens.
stamineal related to stamens.
stamineous related to stamens.
staminiferous bearing stamens.
staminode a sterile stamen.
staminodium a sterile stamen.
staminoid like, or metamorphosed into, a stamen.
statoblast a reproductive body on bryozoans.
stemlet a small or young stem.
stemlike like a stem.
stenophyllous with narrow leaves.
stereome the strengthening or supporting tissue (esp sclerenchyma and collenchyma) in a fibrovascular bundle.
stigma (Lat.) the tip of the female part of the flower which receives pollen.
stigmal relating to a stigma.
stipe a stalk, esp of the fruiting body of a fungus.
stiped having a stipe, a stalk.
stipel the stipule of a leaflet.
stipellate having stipels.
stipes (Lat.) a stalk, esp of the fruiting body of a fungus.
stipiform resembling a stipe.
stipitate supported by a stipe.
stipulaceous having stipules.
stipular of or pertaining to stipules.
stipulary of or pertaining to stipules.
stipule a small, scalelike structure at the basis of the leafstalk.
stipuled furnished with stipules, or leafy appendages.
stolon (Lat.) a runner or shoot from the base of a plant.
stolonate having a stolon.
stolonic of or like a stolon, a runner or shoot from base of a plant.
stoloniferous bearing or having runners.
stoma (Greek) one of the minute apertures between the cells in many serous membranes.
stomate a stoma, one of the minute apertures between the cells in many serous membranes.
stomatic of or pertaining to a stoma; of the nature of a stoma.
strigate having strigae, bristles.
strigose having strigae, bristles.
strobilaceous of or like a strobile; bearing strobiles.
stylar relating to a style, the narrow stalk of the pistil, located above the ovary but below the stigma.
stylate having a style or persistent style.
styliform shaped like a style or bristle.
styloid shaped like a style or bristle; (noun) a styloid process.
stylopodium an enlargement at the of the style base of certain flowers.
subentire of a leaf, with very faintly indented margin.
succus (Lat.) juice, any fluid secretion from a plant or animal.
suffruticose of a perennial plant, having a woody base, but remaining herbaceous in upper part.
surculose having or producing suckers.
surculus (Lat.) a sucker.
sympetalous having the petals united.
sympetaly of petals, being united.
sympodial relating to a sympodium, a stem involved in sympodial growth.
sympodially (Adv.) SYMPODIAL, relating to a sympodium, a stem involved in sympodial growth.
sympodium a stem involved in sympodial growth.
synandrium a mass of united stamens.
synandrous having united stamens.
synantherous having the anthers united in a tube around the style, as in Compositae.
synanthy the abnormal fusion of flowers.
syncarpy the state of being syncarpous, having united carpels.
synecious having male and female organs together on a branch.
syngenesious having the anthers united in a tube around the style, as in Compositae.
synoecious having antheridia and archegonia in the same group.
synoicous having antheridia and archegonia in the same group.
synsepalous another word for gamosepalous, with sepals partly united.
taproot the root of a plant which penetrates the earth directly downward to a considerable depth without dividing.
taprooted having a taproot.
tegmental relating to tegmenta, bud-scales.
tegmentum (Lat.) a bud-scale.
tellar a sapling, a shoot from a tree-stump; (verb) to produce such a shoot.
teller a sapling, a shoot from a tree-stump; (verb) to produce such a shoot.
telome the structural unit of a vascular plant.
telomic relating to a telome, the structural unit of a vascular plant.
tendril a leafless organ of climbing plants.
tendriled having tendrils.
tendrillar of or like a tendril.
tendrilled having tendrils.
tendrillous of or like a tendril.
tendrilly having tendrils.
tendrilous of or like a tendril.
tendron (Fr.) a tendril.
tepal a segment of a perianth in which the corolla and calyx are not differentiated.
ternate with three leaflets.
ternately (Adv.) TERNATE, arranged in threes.
tetradynamous having six stamens, two shorter than the other four.
tetragynian having four pistils.
tetragynous having four pistils.
tetramerous having four similar parts, eg of flowers with petals in sets of four.
tetrandrian having four stamens.
tetrandrous having four stamens.
tetrarchical having four xylem strands.
thalamifloral having petals free and stamens hypogynous.
thalliform shaped like a thallus, a plant body not differentiated into leaf, stem and root.
thalline consisting of a thallus, a plant body not differentiated into leaf, stem and root.
thalloid having the form of a thallus.
thallus (Lat.) a plant body not differentiated into leaf, stem and root.
theca (Lat.) a lobe, a lobulus of an anther.
thorn a sharp hard part of the leaf, stem or root of a plant (verb) to set with thorns, to prick
thornily (Adv.) THORNY, full of thorns.
thorniness the state of being thorny.
thornless without thorns.
thorny full of thorns.
thylakoid any of a membranous disk of lamellae within plant chloroplasts.
tomentose bearing thickly matted hair or fur.
tomentous bearing thickly matted hair or fur.
tomentum (Lat.) the closely matted hair or downy nap covering the leaves or stems of some plants.
tonoplast a semipermeable membrane surrounding a plant vacuole.
tracheid a long tubelike but closed cell in xylem.
tracheidal of or like a tracheid, a long tubelike but closed cell in xylem.
tracheide a long tubelike but closed cell in xylem.
treetop the top of a tree.
triadelphous with three bundles of stamens.
tricarpellary of or with three carpels.
trichome a plant hair or outgrowth from the epidermis.
trichomic relating to a trichome, a plant hair or outgrowth from the epidermis.
triecious having male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on different plants.
trifoliate having three leaves or leaflets.
trifoliated having three leaves or leaflets.
trifoliolate of a compound leaf with three radial leaflets.
trigonous having a triangular cross-section.
trigynian having three pistils or styles.
trigynous having three pistils or styles.
trijugate in three pairs.
trijugous in three pairs.
trilobate having three lobes.
trilobated having three lobes.
trilobe having three lobes; (noun) something with three lobes.
trimerous of a flower, having the parts, esp the petals or sepals, in threes.
trinodal having three knots or nodes; as, a trinodal stem.
tripetalous three-petalled.
tripinnate three times pinnate.
tripinnately (Adv.) TRIPINNATE, three times pinnate.
tripterous three-winged.
triternate thrice ternate, ie ternate with each division ternate, and each again ternate.
tuber an underground stem which has been modified for storage of nutrients, such as a potato.
tubiflorous having tubular flowers.
tubulifloral having tubular-shaped flowers.
tubuliflorous having tubular-shaped flowers.
turion (Fr.) an underground bud, growing up into a new stem.
ulmin a brown amorphous substance found in decaying vegetation.
umbel a type of inflorescence in which flower stalks of equal length arise from the same point on the stem.
umbeled having umbels.
umbellar of or pertaining to an umbel; having the form of an umbel.
umbellate having umbels.
umbellated having umbels.
umbellately (Adv.) UMBELLATE, having umbels.
umbelled having umbels.
umbellet a small or partial umbel.
umbelliferous bearing umbels.
umbellulate shaped like an umbellule, a partial umbel.
umbellule a partial umbel.
umbelule a secondary umbel.
umbonate having a central boss.
underbough a lower branch of a tree.
underleaf in liverworts, any of the leaves forming a row on the underside of the stem.
unicostate of a leaf, having a single rib or strong nerve running upward from the base.
unifoliolate of a compound leaf reduced to a single leaflet.
unijugate of a compound leaf, having only pair of leaflets.
unilabiate having one lip only; as, a unilabiate corolla.
unilobular having one lobule.
uniseptate having only one partition or septum, a uniseptate fruit.
unstalked not having a stalk.
unstemmed not stemmed.
urceolate shaped like a pitcher.
utricular like or having a utricle.
utriculate like or having a utricle.
uveous resembling a grape.
vaginant serving to sheathe.
vaginate invested with, or as if with, a sheath.
vaginated invested with, or as if with, a sheath.
vaginula (Lat.) a little sheath, as that about the base of the pedicel of most mosses.
vaginule a little sheath, as that about the base of the pedicel of most mosses.
valvate with or having a valve or valves.
velamen (Lat.) the water-absorbing outer covering of aerial roots of certain orchids.
velate having a velum, a veil or integument.
velated having a velum, a veil or integument.
velum (Lat.) a veil or integument.
vernation the arrangement of the leaves within the leaf bud.
verticillaster an inflorescence so condensed as to look like a whorl.
villose abounding in, or covered with, fine hairs, or a woolly substance.
villosity the state of being villous, abounding in, or covered with, fine hairs.
villous abounding in, or covered with, fine hairs, or a woolly substance.
villously (Adv.) VILLOUS, abounding in, or covered with, fine hairs, or a woolly substance.
vimen (Lat.) a long branch of a plant.
vitiferous bearing vines.
volva (Lat.) a saclike envelope of certain fungi, which bursts open as the plant develops.
volvate having a volva, a saclike envelope of certain fungi, which bursts open as the plant develops.
whorl a set of leaves, flowers, branches, etc., springing from the axis at the same level and encircling it; (verb) to move in a twisted or convoluted fashion.
xanthophyl a yellow caretenoid pigment found with chlorophyll in green plants and in egg yolks.
xanthophyll a yellow caretenoid pigment found with chlorophyll in green plants and in egg yolks.
xanthophyllous like a xanthophyll, a yellow caretenoid pigment found with chlorophyll in green plants and in egg yolks.
xeromorphic of parts of a plant, protected against excessive loss of water by thick cuticles, coatings of hairs and similar structural features.
xeromorphous of parts of a plant, protected against excessive loss of water by thick cuticles, coatings of hairs and similar structural features.
xiphoidal swordlike.
xiphophyllous having sword-shaped leaves.
xylan a yellow, gummy pentosan found in plant cell walls.
xylem (Greek) woody tissue in plants and trees.
xylogen (Greek) xylem.
xyloid woody; ligneous.