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Science & Tech > Biology > Cells


Now updated for CSW15. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.


acellular not containing or made up of cells.
acrasin a substance secreted by the cells of a slime mould.
adipocyte a fat cell.
agamete an asexual reproductive cell.
akaryote a cell that does not have a nucleus.
akaryotic of or like an akaryote, a cell that does not have a nucleus.
amebocyte a cell, like a leukocyte, having amoeboid form.
ameloblast enamel-producing cell of tooth.
amitosis direct cell division, without mitosis.
amitotic relating to amitosis, direct cell division, without mitosis.
amitotically (Adv.) AMITOTIC, relating to amitosis, direct cell division, without MITOSIS.
amoebocyte a cell, like a leukocyte, having amoeboid form.
amphiaster the structure that occurs in a cell undergoing mitosis, consisting of a spindle with an aster at each end.
anaphase the stage of meiosis in which daughter chromosomes move towards the nuclear spindle.
aneuploid a cell or individual with missing or extra chromosomes.
apocrine denoting a gland whose product is formed by the breakdown of its cells.
apoptosis the natural self-destruction of cells in a growing organism.
apoptotic relating to apoptosis, the natural destruction of cells in a growing organism.
archesporial of or like an archesporium, a primitive cell or group of cells from which a mother cell develops.
archesporium a primitive cell or group of cells from which a mother cell develops.
astrocyte a much-branched, star-shaped neuroglia cell.
astrocytic relating to an astrocyte, a much-branched, star-shaped neuroglia cell.
astrosphere another name for a centrosome.
athrocyte a cell having the ability to move and store foreign matter.
athrocytosis of a cell, having the ability to absorb and store foreign matter.
auxocyte any cell undergoing meiosis esp an oocyte or spermatophyte.
basophilia of white blood cells, the state of having an affinity for stains.
binucleate having two nuclei; as, binucleate cells.
binucleated having two nuclei; as, binucleate cells.
biophor weismann's hypothetical unit of living matter.
biophore weismann's hypothetical unit of living matter.
blastocyst a mammalian blastula in which some differentiation of cells has occurred.
blastomere one of the segments first formed by the division of the ovum.
blastomeric like a blastomere.
blastula (Lat.) a hollow sphere of cells, one cell thick, formed in the cleavage of a fertilized ovum.
blastular relating to the blastula, a hollow sphere of cells, one cell thick, formed in the cleavage of a fertilized ovum.
blepharoplast a basal body esp of a flagellated cell.
caryotin a readily stained substance in the nucleus of a cell made up of DNA, RNA and proteins, aka chromatin.
celliferous bearing cells.
cellule a minute cell, cavity, or pore.
celluliferous bearing little cells.
centriole a rodlike body (usu one of a pair) in animal cells.
centrosome a minute, self-duplicating structure near the interphase nucleus, from which the fibres of the spindle radiate at mitosis.
centrosomic like a centrosome.
choanocyte a cell in which the flagellum is surrounded by a sheath of protoplasm.
chondriosome an old name for a mitochondrion, a minute body generating atp in the cytoplasm of a cell.
chondroblast a cell that forms cartilage.
chromidium an algal cell in a lichen.
chromosome a threadlike body containing the genetic material in the cell nucleus.
ciliated having cilia, fine hairlike structures on the surface of a cell.
cnida (Greek) a nematocyst, a stinging cell in jellyfish.
coccoid a spherical cell or body.
coccoidal like a coccoid, a spherical cell or body.
conjugant one of a pair of cells undergoing conjugation.
cytaster a star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell prior to the onset of cell division.
cyte in biology, a cell.
cytochrome any of a group of substances in living cells, of great importance in cell oxidation.
cytogenesis the formation of cells.
cytogeny the formation of cells.
cytoid cell-like.
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm of a cell, occurring at the end of mitosis or meiosis.
cytokinetic relating to cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm of a cell.
cytologic relating to cytology, the study of living cells.
cytological relating to cytology, the study of living cells.
cytologically (Adv.) CYTOLOGICAL, relating to cytology, the study of living cells.
cytology the study of living cells.
cytolysin an agent that dissolves cells esp by breaking down their outer membrane.
cytolysis the dissolution of cells esp by breaking down their outer membrane.
cytolytic relating to the dissolution of cells esp by breaking down their outer membrane.
cytomegalic having greatly enlarged cells.
cytomembrane one of the cellular membranes including those of the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear envelope, and Golgi apparatus.
cytometric relating to cytometry, the counting of cells.
cytopathic producing pathological changes in cells.
cytophilic of eg antibodies, having an affinity for cells.
cytoplasm the protoplasm of a cell surrounding the nucleus.
cytoplast the intact cytoplasm of a single cell.
cytoplastic of or relating to a cytoplast, the intact cytoplasm of a single cell.
cytosol the fluid portion of cell material.
cytosolic relating to the cytosol, the fluid portion of cell material.
cytosome the part of a cell outside the nucleus.
cytostatic tending to retard cellular activity and multiplication (noun) a substance tending to retard cellular activity
cytostatically (Adv.) CYTOSTATIC, tending to retard cellular activity and multiplication.
cytotaxis movement of cells due to external stimulus.
cytotoxic of or like a cytotoxin, a substance damaging to cells.
desmosomal relating to a desmosome, a small thickened patch on the membrane of a cell.
desmosome a small thickened patch on the membrane of a cell.
deutoplasm the food material, such as yolk or fat, within an egg or cell.
deutoplasmic of or like deutoplasm, the food material, such as yolk or fat, within an egg or cell.
deutoplastic of or like deutoplasm, the food material, such as yolk or fat, within an egg or cell.
diplonema a less common name for diplotene, a stage of meiotic prophase (cell division).
diplont an animal or plant body containing diploid nuclei.
diplontic relating to a diplont, an animal or plant body containing diploid nuclei.
diplosis a method of chromosome formation.
diplotene the fourth stage of the prophase of meiosis, in which the chromosomes clearly double.
dithecal having two thecae or sheaths.
dithecous having two thecae or sheaths.
ectomere the more transparent cells, which finally become external, in many segmenting ova, as those of mammals.
ectomeric like an ectomere, the more transparent cells, which finally become external, in many segmenting ova, as those of mammals.
embryoid a embryo-like structure produced in tissue culture.
endocytic involved absorption of cells.
endocytosis the process by which a living cell takes up molecules bound to its surface.
endocytotic relating to endocytosis.
endogenous produced or growing from within.
endogenously (Adv.) ENDOGENOUS, produced or growing from within.
endogeny increase by internal growth.
endoplasm the protoplasm in the interior of a cell.
endoplasmic as in endoplasmic reticulum, a series of flattened membranous tubules and cisternae in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
endoplastic as in endoplasmic reticulum, a series of flattened membranous tubules and cisternae in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
endosarc endoplasm.
energid the nucleus and active cytoplasm of a cell.
epibolic relating to epiboly, the process by which one set of cells spreads over and surrounds another by dividing more rapidly, as in gastrulation.
epiboly the process by which one set of cells spreads over and surrounds another by dividing more rapidly, as in gastrulation.
erythroblast a cell in bone marrow that develops into an erythrocyte.
erythroblastic of or like an erythroblast.
eucaryon the highly organised cell nucleus, surrounded by a membrane.
eucaryot an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
eucaryote an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
eucaryotic of or like a eucaryote, an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
eukaryon the highly organised cell nucleus, surrounded by a membrane.
eukaryot an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
eukaryote an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
eukaryotic of or like a eukaryote, an organism whose cells have a eukaryon, a highly organised nucleus.
exocytic outside biological cells.
exocytose to secrete a substance from within a cell.
exocytosis the release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles.
exocytotic relating to exocytosis, the release of cellular substances contained in cell vesicles.
fibroblast a cell in connective tissue from which connective tissue is formed.
fibroblastic of or like a fibroblast.
gametangial relating to a gametangium, an organ or cell in which gametes are produced.
gametangium an organ or cell in which gametes are produced.
gonidial pertaining to, or containing, gonidia, algal cells in lichen.
gonidic relating to a gonidium, an algal cell in lichen.
gonocyte a gamete-producting cell.
granulocyte a kind of white blood cell.
granulocytic of or like a granulocyte, a kind of white blood cell.
hepatocyte an epithelial parenchymatous cell of the liver.
heterocyst a cell larger than the others, and of different appearance, occurring in certain algae related to nostoc.
heterocystous of or like a heterocyst.
heterogamete male and female sex cells are different.
histoblast a cell or group of cells forming the primary element or unit of tissue.
homeotypic denoting or relating to the second nuclear division of meiosis, which resembles mitosis.
homoblasty the state of being homoblastic, derived from similar cells.
homoeotypic denoting or relating to the second nuclear division of meiosis, which resembles mitosis.
hyalogen a substance found in animal cells.
hybridoma a hybrid cell produced by the fusion of an antibody-producing lymphocyte with a tumor cell.
idioblast a plant cell that differs from neighbouring cells in the same tissue.
inosine a type of molecule making up a cell.
intercell between cells.
interkinesis the resting stage between two divisions of mitosis.
intermitotic occurring or existing between mitoses; capable of dividing again.
interphase the interval between the end of one meiotic or mitotic division and the start of another.
intracellular existing, occurring, or functioning within a cell.
intracellularly (Adv.) INTRACELLULAR, existing, occurring, or functioning within a cell.
karyogamic relating to karyogamy.
karyogamy a process of fusion of the nuclei of two cells; the second step in syngamy.
karyokinesis division of the cell nucleus.
karyokinetic relating to karyokinesis, division of the cell nucleus.
karyologic relating to karyology, the study of cell nuclei.
karyological relating to karyology, the study of cell nuclei.
karyologist a practitioner of karyology, the study of cell nuclei.
karyology the study of cell nuclei.
karyoplasm nucleoplasm.
karyoplasmic of or like karyoplasm, nucleoplasm.
karyosome a spherical aggregation of chromatin in a resting nucleus during mitosis.
karyotin a readily stained substance in the nucleus of a cell made up of DNA, RNA and proteins, aka chromatin.
leptotene the first stage of meiotic prophase in which long, slender, single-stranded chromosomes develop.
leucoblast an immature cell which will develop into a leucocyte.
linin (Greek) a substance which forms the network of a cell nucleus.
lipocyte a fat cell.
liposomal relating to a liposome, a naturally occurring liquid globule in the cytoplasm of a cell.
liposome a naturally occurring liquid globule in the cytoplasm of a cell.
lithite a calcareous body secreted by an animal cell.
locular of eg an ovary, divided into compartments by septa.
loculate of eg an ovary, divided into compartments by septa.
loculated of eg an ovary, divided into compartments by septa.
lymphokine any of various substances secreted by T cells.
lysate a product of lysis, the disintegration or destruction of cells.
lyse to undergo lysis, disintegration or destruction of cells.
lysigenetic caused by the breaking down of cells.
lysigenic caused by the breaking down of cells.
lysigenous caused by the breaking down of cells.
lysin a substance that causes breakdown of cells.
lysis the disintegration or destruction of cells; (Med.) gradual recovery from disease.
lysosomal of or like a lysosome, a saclike part of a cell.
lysosome a saclike part of a cell.
lytic relating to lysis, the disintegration or destruction of cells.
lytically (Adv.) LYTIC, relating to lysis, the disintegration or destruction of cells.
macromere a large blastomere, one of the segments first formed by the division of the ovum.
meiocyte a cell that divides by meiosis to produce four haploid spores.
melanoblast a cell that is a precursor of a melanocyte or melanophore.
melanocyte an epidermal cell that can produce melanism.
merisis (Greek) growth by cell division.
mesosome a convoluted invagination of the cell wall in some bacteria.
metaphase the stage of mitotic or meiotic nuclear division when the chromosomes become attached to the spindle fibres.
micromere a small cell formed by unequal division of an ovum or embryo, eg in sea urchins.
microsome a minute granule or drop in cytoplasm.
microtubular of or like a microtubule.
microtubule any of the relatively rigid structures in the cytoplasm of many plant and animal cells.
microvillar of or like a microvillus, a microscopic projection from the surface of a cell wall.
microvillous of or like a microvillus, a microscopic projection from the surface of a cell wall.
microvillus a microscopic projection from the surface of a cell wall.
mitogen a substance that causes cells to divide.
mitogenetic relating to mitogens, a substance that causes cells to divide.
mitogenic causing cell division.
mitogenicity the state of being mitogenic.
mitosis (Greek) an elaborate process of cell-division involving the arrangement of chromosomes in definite figures.
mitotic relating to mitosis, cell division.
mitotically (Adv.) MITOTIC, relating to mitosis, cell division.
mononuclear having only one nucleus; (noun) a mononuclear cell.
monovular having one ovule.
morula (Lat.) a solid spherical mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of an ovum.
morular of or like a morula, a solid spherical mass of cells resulting from the cleavage of an ovum.
mucopeptide another name for peptidoglycan.
multicell having or made up of many cells.
multicelled having many cells.
multipolar having many poles, eg of nerve cells.
murein a peptidoglycan found in cell walls.
myeloblast an immature cell of bone marrow.
myeloblastic of or like a myeloblast.
myotube a cylindrical cell that develops from a myoblast.
myxameba a cell produced by a spore.
myxamoeba a cell produced by a spore.
myxocyte a large cell found in mucous tissue.
nastic growing because of internal cell pressures rather than environmentally.
neoblast in many of the lower animals, such as worms, any of the large amoeboid cells that play an important part in the phenomena of regeneration.
neuroblast an embryonic nerve cell.
neuron (Greek) a nerve cell.
neuronal of or like a neuron.
neurone a nerve cell.
neuronic of or like a neuron.
nucleal of or like a nucleus.
nuclein a colourless amorphous substance of varying composition, obtained from cell nuclei.
nucleinic relating to nuclein, a colourless amorphous substance of varying composition, obtained from cell nuclei.
nucleoid the DNA-containing area of certain cells.
nucleolar of or pertaining to the nucleolus of a cell.
nucleolate having a nucleus or nucleolus.
nucleolated having a nucleus or nucleolus.
nucleole a minute rounded body within the nucleus of a cell, associated with RNA synthesis.
nucleolus a minute rounded body within the nucleus of a cell, associated with RNA synthesis.
nucleoplasm the protoplasm in the nucleus of a cell.
nucleoplasmatic relating to nucleoplasm, the protoplasm in the nucleus of a cell.
nucleoplasmic relating to nucleoplasm, the protoplasm in the nucleus of a cell.
oocyte an ovum before it matures and begins to divide.
organelle a specialized part of a cell that acts like an organ.
osteoblast one of the protoplasmic cells which occur in the osteogenetic layer of the periosteum, and from or around which the matrix of the bone is developed; an osteoplast.
osteoblastic of or like an osteoblast.
pepsinogen a substance in the mucous membrane of the stomach which converts into pepsin in a slightly acid medium.
peptidoglycan a polymer in the cell walls of procaryocytes.
periblast in meroblastic eggs, the margin of the blastoderm merging with the surrounding yolk.
perikaryal relating to the perikaryon, the cell body of a neuron containing the nucleus.
perikaryon the cell body of a neuron containing the nucleus.
periplasm the region inside the wall of a biological cell.
peroxisomal of like a peroxisome.
peroxisome an organelle containing enzymes.
phagosome part of a biological cell.
pinocytotic relating to pinocytosis, drinking by cells.
pinocytotically (Adv.) PINOCYTOTIC, relating to pinocytosis, drinking by cells.
plasmagel cytoplasm in the form of a gel, esp surrounding the plasmasol in an amoeboid cell.
plasmagene a self-reproducing structure like the mitochondria.
plasmagenic of or like a plasmagene.
plasmapheresis the process of separating plasma from red blood cells in blood from donor, and returning red blood cells to donor.
plasmasol cytoplasm in the form of a sol, esp in a pseudopodium.
plasmodesm a strand of living cytoplasm connecting two cells.
plasmodesma a strand of living cytoplasm connecting two cells.
plasmogamy a process of fusion of the cytoplasm of two cells; the first step in syngamy.
plasmolyse to undergo plasmolysis, the removal of water from a cell by osmosis.
plasmolysis the removal of water from a cell by osmosis.
plasmolytic relating to plasmolysis.
plasmolytically (Adv.) PLASMOLYTIC, relating to plasmolysis.
plasmolyze to undergo plasmolysis, the removal of water from a cell by osmosis.
plasmon the total of the genetic material in a cell.
plastogamy a process of fusion of the cytoplasm of two cells, the first step in syngamy.
polygenic of or relating to polygeny.
polysomy a condition in which one or more extra chromosomes are present in the cells of the body.
potline a row of electrolytic cells.
premeiotic taking place before meiosis.
procaryotic like a procaryote.
pronuclear relating to a pronucleus.
pronucleus the nucleus of a germ-cell after meiosis and before fertilization.
prophase the first stage in cell division, during which chromosomes form the chromatin of the nucleus.
prophasic relating to prophase, the first stage in cell division.
proplastid a precursor of a cell plastid.
protoplasm the complex translucent colourless colloidal material comprising the living part of a cell.
protoplasmic of or like protoplasm.
protoplast living material within a cell divided into discrete structures; the protein of which cells are composed.
pseudopod a process protruding from the cell of a protozoan, etc, used for movement or feeding.
pseudopodal of or like a pseudopod.
pseudopodial of or like a pseudopod.
pycnosis the shrinkage of the stainable material of a nucleus into a deeply staining knot, usually a feature of cell degeneration.
pyknosis the shrinkage of the stainable material of a nucleus into a deeply staining knot, usually a feature of cell degeneration.
pyknotic relating to pyknosis, the shrinkage of the stainable material of a nucleus into a deeply staining knot.
retinula (Lat.) a pigmented cell in some arthropod compound eyes, from which the rhabdom arises.
ribosomal relating to a ribosome.
ribosome a small particle, found in large numbers in all cells and composed of RNA and protein, on which protein synthesis takes place.
sclereid a thick-walled cell.
sclereide a thick-walled cell.
sclerenchyma plant tissue consisting of cells with thick lignified walls.
somatogenic caused from within the body or by the cells of the body.
spermatid a cell that develops directly into a spermatozoon.
spermatoblast a sperm-producing cell.
spermatoblastic of or like a spermatoblast, a sperm-producing cell.
spherocyte an abnormal red-blood cell that is spherical rather than disc-shaped.
spheroplast a bacterium or yeast cell that is modified, as by enzymatic action, so that there is partial loss of the cell wall and increased osmotic sensitivity.
spirem in mitosis, the coiled thread formed by nuclear chromatin.
spireme in mitosis, the coiled thread formed by nuclear chromatin.
sporocyte a diploid cell that divides by meiosis to produce four haploid spores.
stomatal pertaining to a stoma, one of the minute apertures between the cells in many serous membranes.
stomatous pertaining to a stoma, one of the minute apertures between the cells in many serous membranes.
subcell a subdivision of a cell.
subtilisin an extracellular protease created by a soil bacillus.
summerwood wood with smaller and thicker-walled cells than springwood.
syncytial relating to a syncytium, a mass of protoplasm with many nuclei but no clear cell boundaries.
syncytium a mass of protoplasm with many nuclei but no clear cell boundaries.
synizesis a stage of meiosis in some species in which all the chromosomes contract together.
telophase the last phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes of the daughter cells are grouped in separate nuclei.
telophasic relating to telophase, the last phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes of the daughter cells are grouped in separate nuclei.
thermonasty nastic movement in response to heat or temperature change.
tissue a group of cells with a specific function in the body of an organism; anything woven (verb) to weave or interweave
tissuey of or like tissue.
trichocyst a lasso cell.
trichocystic of or like a trichocyst, a lasso cell.
trophoblast the outermost layer of cells in the morula that attaches the fertilized ovum to the uterine wall and acts as a nutritive pathway.
trophoblastic of or like a trophoblast.
trophoplasm the nutritive substance of cell.
turgency a balance of osmotic pressure and cell-wall elasticity.
turgor (Lat.) a balance of osmotic pressure and cell-wall elasticity.
ubiquinone a quinine used involved in the transfer of electrons during cell respiration.
unciliated without cilia.
unicellular having or consisting of a single cell.
unicellularity the state of being unicellular.
vacuolar relating to a vacuole, a cellular cavity.
vacuolate having vacuoles.
vacuolated having vacuoles.
vacuole a small cavity or vesicle in organic tissue; esp a membrane-bound space containing fluid in the cytoplasm of a cell.
volutin a substance found in granular form in the cytoplasm of various cells.
xenotropic reproducing or replicating only in cells other than those of the host species.
zooblast an animal cell.
zygoid pertaining to a zygote.
zygote a cell formed by union of two gametes; a fertilized egg.
zygotene the second stage of the prophase of the first meiotic division, in which homologous chromosomes begin to pair.
zygotic pertaining to a zygote, a cell formed by the union of two gametes.
zygotically (Adv.) ZYGOTIC, pertaining to a zygote, a cell formed by the union of two gametes.
zymosan an insoluble fraction of yeast cell walls.