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Science & Tech > Anatomy > Invertebrate


Now updated for CSW15. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.


abactinal remote from the actinal area (of a radiate animal).
abactinally (Adv.) ABACTINAL, pertaining to the surface or end opposite to the mouth in a radiate animal.
acoelomate an animal that lacks a coelom, for example platyhelminths (flatworms).
actinal pertaining to the part of a radiate animal which contains the mouth.
actinally (Adv.) ACTINAL, pertaining to the part of a radiate animal which contains the mouth.
actiniform having a radiate form, like a starfish.
ambulacral of or pertaining to ambulacra; avenuelike; as, the ambulacral ossicles, plates, spines, and suckers of echinoderms.
ambulacrum a radial band in the shell of an echinoderm, bearing rows of pores through which the tube-feet protrude.
amphistomous having a sucker at either end, as some worms.
angiostomatous narrow-mouthed; with a mouth that is not distensible.
angiostomous narrow-mouthed; with a mouth that is not distensible.
antenna (Lat.) either of a pair of sensory appendages on the heads of insects, crustaceans, and some other arthropods.
antennal of or like antennae.
antennary having antennae.
antenniferous bearing antennae.
antennular of or like an antennule.
antennule one of a first or smaller pair of antennae in crustaceans.
antlia (Lat.) the suctorial proboscis of certain insects.
antliate having an antlia, the suctorial proboscis of certain insects.
arthromere an arthropod body segment.
arthromeric relating to an arthromere.
axonemal relating to an axoneme, part of a cilium.
axoneme a central strand of a locomotor organelle such as a cilium or flagellum.
bivalvate of molluscs, having two valves.
bivium (Lat.) in echinoderms, the two rays enclosing the madreporite.
bothrium (Lat.) a groove on a tapeworm.
brachycerous of insects, having short antennae.
cavitary containing a body cavity; as, the cavitary or nematoid worms.
cephalothoracic relating to the cephalothorax.
cephalothorax the body, or head with thorax, of spiders, crustaceans, etc.
cephalous having a head.
cercus (Lat.) a sensory appendage of an insect.
cervicum the flexible region between the head and prothorax in insects.
chaeta (Lat.) a bristle or seta of seaworms.
chaetal relating to a chaeta, a bristle or seta of seaworms.
chelicera the first pair of appendages of a chelicerate arthropod.
cheliceral relating to the chelicerae.
cheliferous bearing pincers or claws.
cheliform shaped like a chela or pincer.
cheliped one of the pair of legs carrying the chelae (claws) in arthropods.
chitin a substance consisting of polysaccharide which forms most of the hard outer skeletons of arthropods and of the cell-walls of fungi.
chitinoid of or like chitin.
chitinous of or like chitin.
chrysalid a pupa, esp of a moth or butterfly, enclosed in a firm case or cocoon.
chrysalidal like a chrysalid.
chrysalis a pupa, esp of a moth or butterfly, enclosed in a firm case or cocoon.
ciliation the state of having cilia, hairlike lashes borne by a cell.
clitellar relating to the clitellum.
clitellum (Lat.) in annelids, a swelling of the body towards the head of the animal, where the gonads are located.
clypeal relating to the clypeus, the frontal plate of the head of an insect.
clypeus (Lat.) the frontal plate of the head of an insect.
cnidoblast a stinging thread cell containing a nematocyst.
coelenteron a coelenterate's saclike body cavity.
coelomate having a coelom; (noun) an animal having a coelom.
coenosarc the common soft tissue which unites the polyps of a compound hydroid.
colleterial as in colleterial gland, a glue-secreting organ found in insects.
conchiolin a fibrous protein substance that forms the basic structure of the shell of molluscs.
connivent of insect or plant parts, converging and touching, but not united or fused.
connivently (Adv.) CONNIVENT, converging and touching, but not united or fused.
corbicula (Lat.) the pollen basket of bees, consisting of the dilated posterior tibia with its fringe of long hairs.
cornicle a wax-secreting organ on an aphid's abdomen.
corniculum (Lat.) a small hornlike part or process.
coxa (Lat.) the first joint of the leg of an insect or crustacean.
coxal relating to the coxa, the first joint of the leg of an insect or crustacean.
cribellar relating to a cribellum, a sievelike spinning organ of certain spiders.
cribellum (Lat.) a sievelike spinning organ of certain spiders.
ctene (Greek) a comblike swimming organ in the Ctenophora.
ctenidium (Lat.) a comblike respiratory gill of molluscs.
cuticula (Lat.) the outer hard covering of an insect.
dactylus (Lat.) the leg joint of certain insects.
dealate divested of its wings; (noun) an animal divested wings.
dealated of an insect, divested of its wings.
dermatome the lateral wall of a somite from which the dermis is produced.
dermatomic relating to a dermatome, the lateral wall of a somite from which the dermis is produced.
diact having two rays; (noun) a sponge spicule having two rays that develop in different directions from a single point of origin.
diactinal having two rays.
diactine having two rays; (noun) a sponge spicule having two rays that develop in different directions from a single point of origin.
dioptrate of insects, having the compound eye divided transversely.
diploblastic having ectoderm and endoderm but no mesoderm, as in coelenterates.
dipnoous having both lungs and gills.
dipteral having two wings only; belonging to the order Diptera.
dipterous having two wings, as certain insects; belonging to the order Diptera.
dorsibranchiate having gills on the back.
edriophthalmian of crustaceans, with stalkless eyes.
edriophthalmic of crustaceans, with stalkless eyes.
edriophthalmous of crustaceans, with stalkless eyes.
elytral relating to the elytrum, a beetle's wing-case.
elytriform having the form, or structure, of an elytron.
elytrigerous bearing elytra.
elytroid of or like an elytron, a beetle's forewing.
elytron (Greek) each of the horny forewings of a coleopterous insect, which form protective sheaths for the hindwings.
elytrous of or like an elytron, a beetle's forewing.
elytrum (Lat.) each of the horny forewings of a coleopterous insect, which form protective sheaths for the hindwings.
encephalous having a head.
endopod a branch of a crustacean limb.
endopodite the internal or principal branch of the locomotive appendages of Crustacea.
endostyle a fold of the endoderm, which projects into the blood cavity of ascidians.
enteron (Greek) a body cavity in coelenterates.
epicuticle the outermost layer of cuticle of an insect exoskeleton.
epicuticular relating to the epicuticle.
epiphragm the disc with which certain molluscs close the aperture of their shell.
epistome the region between the antennae and the mouth, in Crustacea.
equivalve having valves of similar size and form.
exarate of a pupa, having the appendages free from the body.
exocuticle the middle layer of an insect's cuticle.
exopod the outer branch of a crustacean limb.
exopodite the outer branch of a crustacean limb.
exopoditic of or like an exopodite, the outer branch of a crustacean limb.
exoskeletal relating to an exoskeleton.
exoskeleton an external skeleton.
eyestalk one of the movable peduncles which, in the decapod Crustacea, bear the eyes at the tip.
fenestra (Lat.) a translucent spot eg on an insect's wing.
flagellar of or relating to a flagellum, a whip, a whiplike organ.
flagellum (Lat.) a whip, a whiplike organ.
frenular of or relating to a frenulum, a small stiff hair on the hindwings of some insects.
frenulum (Lat.) a small stiff hair on the hindwings of some insects, serving to bond hind and front wings.
frustule the siliceous two-valved shell of a diatom.
funicle any of certain filamentary anatomical structures, eg a section of an insect's antenna.
furca any forklike structure esp in insects.
gladius (Lat.) the internal shell, or pen, of cephalopods.
gnathite in arthropods, an appendage used as a jaw.
gonopod either of a pair of appendages that are the external reproductive organs of insects.
gonopore a genital pore in insects and some invertebrates.
haemocoel the central body cavity of many invertebrates.
haemolymph the blood-like fluid of invertebrates.
haltere (Greek) the rudimentary hindwing of a fly.
haustellum the sucking organ or proboscis of an insect or crustacean.
hectocotylus a tentacle in certain male cephalopod molluscs, such as the octopus, that is specialized for transferring spermatozoa to the female.
hemelytral relating to the hemelytron, the insect forewing.
hemelytron an insect forewing thickened at the base, membranous at the apex.
hemelytrum an insect forewing thickened at the base, membranous at the apex.
hemerythrin an iron-containing respiratory pigment in the blood of various chiefly marine invertebrates.
hemielytral relating to the hemielytron, the insect forewing.
hemielytron the forewing of plant bugs and related insects, having a thickened base and a membranous apex.
hemocoel the central body cavity of many invertebrates.
hemolymph the circulatory fluid of various invertebrate animals.
hepatopancreas a glandular structure (as of a crustacean) that combines the digestive functions of the vertebrate liver and pancreas.
hexactinal having six rays.
hindwing the rear wing of eg an insect.
holoptic of an insect, having the eyes meeting at the midline.
homeomery the state of being homoeomeric, having all the somites alike.
homoeomeric having all the somites alike.
homoeomery the state of being homoeomeric, having all the somites alike.
hypopharynx an appendage or thickened fold on the floor of the mouth of many insects that resembles a tongue.
hypostome any of several structures associated with the mouth in different invertebrates.
implex (Lat.) in arthropods, an in-turning of the integument where muscles are attached.
incurrent carrying an inflowing current.
indusial of or like an indusium, the protective cover of insect's wing.
indusiate having an indusium, a protective covering.
indusium the protective cover of an insect's wing.
inequivalve having the valves of the shell of a mollusk unequal in size.
inequivalved having the valves of the shell of a mollusk unequal in size.
interambulacral of or like an interambulacrum.
interambulacrum in sea urchins, a radial band between ambulacra.
interramal between rami or branches; esp between the mandibles, or rami of the lower jaw.
invertebral invertebrate.
ligula (Lat.) a tonguelike part or organ; the anterior part of an insect's labium or lower lip.
limacel (Lat.) a slug's reduced, usually embedded, shell.
loma (Lat.) a membranous fringe or flap in the southwestern US, a hill with a broad flat top
lophophorate of or like a lophophore, a ring of ciliated tentacles round the mouth of some sedentary marine animals.
lophophore a ring of ciliated tentacles round the mouth of some sedentary marine animals.
madreporite in echinoderms, a perforated plate serving as opening to the stone canal.
madreporitic of or like madreporite, in echinoderms, a perforated plate serving as opening to the stone canal.
maxilliped one of the mouth appendages of Crustacea, situated next behind the maxillae.
maxillipedary like a maxilliped, one of the mouth appendages of Crustacea.
maxillipede one of the mouth appendages of Crustacea, situated next behind the maxillae.
maxillula in crustaceans, a maxilla of the first pair.
meroistic applied to the ovaries of insects when they secrete vitelligenous cells, as well as ova.
mesoglea a gelatinous layer between the endoderm and ectoderm of a coelenterate.
mesogleal relating to the mesoglea.
mesogloea a gelatinous layer between the endoderm and ectoderm of a coelenterate.
mesothorax the middle segment of the thorax in insects.
metameral relating to a metamere, a serial division or segmentation of a body.
metamere one of the similar body segments into which earthworms, crayfish, and similar animals are divided longitudinally.
metasoma the posterior part of an arachnid's abdomen.
metathoracic relating to the metathorax.
metathorax the last or posterior segment of the thorax in insects.
monact the spicule of a sponge that has a single-spiked structure.
monactinal of a sponge, having single-rayed spicules.
monactine the spicule of a sponge that has a single-spiked structure.
monothalamous of an animal or protist, having a shell, test, or skeleton with a single chamber.
myotome a segment of the body formed by a region of muscle.
nematoblast a stinging thread cell containing a nematocyst, aka cnidoblast.
nematocyst an older name for a cnidoblast, a stinging cell in eg jellyfish.
nematocystic of or like a nematocyst, a stinging cell in eg a jellyfish.
nephridial of or pertaining to a nephridium, a segmental tubule.
nephridium in invertebrates and lower chordates, an organ serving the function of a kidney.
notal pertaining to the notum, the dorsal aspect of the thorax in insects.
notum (Lat.) the dorsal aspect of the thorax in insects.
obtect of an insect, having wings and legs immovably pressed against the body in a hard chitinous case.
obtected of an insect, having wings and legs immovably pressed against the body in a hard chitinous case.
ocellar of the nature of an ocellus, a small simple eye found in many invertebrates.
ocellus (Lat.) a small simple eye found in many invertebrates; an eyelike marking.
octamerous having eight parts or organs.
odontophoral of or like an odontophore, the rasping apparatus in molluscs.
odontophoran of or like an odontophore, the rasping apparatus in molluscs; (noun) an odontophore.
odontophore the rasping apparatus in molluscs.
odontophorous of or like an odontophore, the rasping apparatus in molluscs.
ommateum (Lat.) a compound eye.
ommatidial relating to an ommatidium.
ommatidium a simple element of a compound eye.
ommatophore an eyestalk, as in snails.
ommatophorous of or like ommatophore, an eyestalk, as in snails.
onycha (Greek) an ingredient in ancient Jewish incense; the nail-like operculum of a mollusc.
onychium a pulvillus (a minute cushion on the feet) in insects.
oocyst an encysted form of some sporozoan zygotes.
oothecal pertaining to an ootheca, the firm-walled egg-case of some molluscs and insects.
opercular belonging to the operculum; (noun) the opercular bone.
operculate relating to the operculum.
operculated relating to the operculum.
opercule an anatomical part that serves as a lid or cover.
operculum (Lat.) an anatomical part that serves as a lid or cover.
opisthosoma the abdomen of a spider or other arachnid.
osculum (Lat.) the excretory organ of a sponge.
osmeterium a forked process behind the head of certain caterpillars, giving out a foul smell.
otocystic relating to an otocyst, an auditory cyst or vesicle.
ovariole one of the egg-tubes forming an insect's ovary.
ovipositor the organ with which many insects and some other animals deposit their eggs.
pallial of or pertaining to the pallium or mantle of a mollusc.
palp a sense organ attached to mouthparts of certain insects and crustacea; (verb) to sense by touch.
palpal relating to a palp, an elongated sense organ, usually near mouth, in insects, mollusks, crustaceans.
palpus (Lat.) a sense organ attached to mouthparts of certain insects and crustacea.
paraglossa one of a pair of small appendages of the lingua or labium of certain insects.
paraglossal relating to the paraglossae, small appendages of the lingua or labium of certain insects.
paraglossate relating to the paraglossae, small appendages of the lingua or labium of certain insects.
paragnathism having equal mandibles.
paragnathous having equal mandibles.
parapodial relating to a parapodium, one of the lateral appendages of an annelid.
parapodium a jointless muscular lateral appendage occurring in pairs in polychaete worms.
pedicellaria each of numerous organs like small pincers on the outside of an echinoderm.
pedipalp one of the second pair of appendages of an arachnoid.
pedipalpus one of the second pair of appendages of an arachnoid.
pentact a five-rayed sponge spicule.
pentactinal relating to a pentact.
peraeon (Greek) the thorax of some crustaceans.
peraeopod each of the eight walking limbs of a crustacean such as a crab or lobster, growing from the thorax.
pereion (Greek) the thorax of some crustaceans.
pereiopod each of the eight walking limbs of a crustacean such as a crab or lobster, growing from the thorax.
pereon the thorax of some crustaceans.
pereopod each of the eight walking limbs of a crustacean such as a crab or lobster, growing from the thorax.
periostracum the horny outer layer of a mollusc's shell.
periplast an intercellular substance; the ectoplasm of flagellates.
periproct the region surrounding the anus, particularly of echinoderms.
perisarc the outer, hardened integument which covers most hydroids.
perisarcal relating to the perisarc, the outer, hardened integument which covers most hydroids.
perisarcous relating to the perisarc, the outer, hardened integument which covers most hydroids.
perradial situated around the radii, or radial tubes, of a radiate.
perradius the primary radius of a coelenterate.
pleonal relating to the pleon, the abdomen of crustaceans.
pleonic relating to the pleon, the abdomen of crustaceans.
pleuron (Greek) an external, lateral body part of arthropods.
podite a walking leg of a crustacean.
poditic relating to a podite, a walking leg of a crustacean.
podomere a walking leg of a crustacean, a podite.
poiser the balancer of dipterous insects.
polyact of a marine animal, having many rays or tentacles.
polyactinal of a marine animal, having many rays or tentacles.
polyactine of a marine animal, having many rays or tentacles; (noun) the spicule of a polyactinal sponge.
polypodous having many legs or similar appendages.
preocular placed just in front of the eyes, as the antennae of certain insects; (noun) a scale in front of the eye of a reptile or fish.
prepupal relating to the stage before the pupa.
prescutum (Lat.) the first of the four pieces composing the dorsal part, or tergum, of a thoracic segment of an insect.
presternum the anterior segment of the sternum.
proboscis an elongated organ, usually associated with the mouth.
proctodaeal relating to the proctodaeum, the posterior portion of the alimentary canal, esp in insects and embryos.
proglottic relating to the proglottis.
proglottid a segment of a tapeworm.
proglottidean of or like a proglottis, a segment of a tapeworm.
proglottis a segment of a tapeworm.
proleg an insect larva's abdominal leg.
promuscidate like or having a promuscis.
promuscis a proboscis, esp an insect's.
pronotal relating to a pronotum, the back of an insect's prothorax.
pronotum the back of an insect's prothorax.
propodeon in some Hymenoptera, the first abdominal segment.
propodeum in some Hymenoptera, the first abdominal segment.
prosternum the sternum of the prothorax of insects.
prostomial relating to the prostomium, that portion of the head of an annelid situated in front of the mouth.
prostomium that portion of the head of an annelid situated in front of the mouth.
prothorax the first or anterior segment of the thorax in insects.
protopod a part of a crustacean appendage.
pseudimago a stage in the development of certain insects, such as the May flies, intermediate between the pupa and imago.
pterin (Greek) any of a group of substances occurring in butterfly wings.
pulmobranch a lung-book.
pulmobranchiate relating to a pulmobranch, a lung-book.
pulvillus (Lat.) one of the minute cushions on the feet of certain insects.
pupa (Lat.) an insect in the usually passive stage between larva and imago.
pupal of or pertaining to a pupa, or the condition of a pupa.
puparial relating to a puparium, the last larval skin of the pupa.
puparium (Lat.) the last larval skin of the pupa.
pupigerous bearing a puparium.
pupiparous bearing, or containing, a pupa.
pygidial of or like a pygidium, the posterior division of the body in trilobites.
pygidium in trilobites, the posterior division of the body, formed by fusion of the telson with one or more posterior pleurae.
pyrenoid a transparent body found in the chromatophores of certain Infusoria.
radula (Lat.) a mollusc's tongue, that is studded with tiny teeth.
rayless without rays.
raylessly (Adv.) RAYLESS, without rays.
resilin an elastic substance in the cuticles of many insects.
retinular relating to the retinula, a pigmented cell in some arthropod compound eyes, from which the rhabdom arises.
rhabdoid a rodlike body.
rhabdolith a calcareous rod in some Protozoa.
rhabdom (Greek) a fourfold rod in the compound eye of an arthropod.
rhabdomal of or like a rhabdom, a fourfold rod in the compound eye of an arthropod.
rhabdome (Greek) a fourfold rod in the compound eye of an arthropod.
rhabdomere one of the several parts composing a rhabdom.
rhabdus (Greek) a rodlike sponge spicule.
rhynchocoel the cavity in which the proboscis of a nemertine lies.
ringent having gaping liplike parts such as the shells of certain bivalves.
sclere a sponge spicule.
sclerotisation the cross-linking of chitin protein molecules to harden an insect's shell.
scolecoid like a scolex, the head of a tapeworm.
scolex (Greek) the head of a tapeworm.
scopula (Lat.) a brushlike tuft of hairs on legs of some spiders.
scopulate like a scopula, a little tuft of hairs.
scrobe a groove eg for the reception or concealment of a limb or other appendage of an insect.
scrobicular relating to or surrounded by scrobicules.
scrobicule a small pit or depression, as around the tubercles of a sea urchin.
serricorn having serrated antennae; (noun) a beetle with serrate antennae.
shard a piece of broken pottery; a beetle's elytrum or wing-case.
sharded (Arch.) sheltered under dung.
sinupallial of certain bivalve molluscs, having an indented pallial line for the retraction and expansion of the pallial siphons.
sinupalliate of certain bivalve molluscs, having an indented pallial line for the retraction and expansion of the pallial siphons.
siphonet an aphid's honeydew tube.
siphuncle the tube which runs through the partitions of chambered cephalopod shells.
spermatheca a receptacle for storing spermatazoa in insects.
spermathecal of or like a spermatheca, a receptacle for storing spermatazoa in insects.
sphaeridium a minute spheroidal body on the surface of a sea urchin, perhaps a sense organ.
spicula (Lat.) a spike or splinter.
spiculum (Lat.) a little spine; a snail's dart.
spinneret the silk-spinning organ of an insect or spider.
spinnerette the silk-spinning organ of an insect or spider.
spinnerule one of the numerous small spinning tubes on the spinnerets of spiders.
spiracle a breathing hole in eg insects.
spiracular of or pertaining to a spiracle.
spiraculum a breathing-hole; a vent, orifice.
spiraster a coiled sponge spicule with radiating spines.
sternite the sternum of an arthropod somite.
sternitic relating to the sternite, the sternum of an arthropod somite.
subcosta the subcostal nervure or vein of an insect's wing.
subimago a stage in the development of certain insects, such as mayflies, intermediate between the pupa and imago.
submentum the basal part of the labium of insects.
subumbrella the concave undersurface of a jellyfish.
subumbrellar relating to the subumbrella, the concave undersurface of a jellyfish.
swimmeret a crustacean's abdominal appendage used in swimming.
tailfan a fanlike swimming organ at the end of some crustaceans.
tentacled having tentacles.
tentacular of or pertaining to a tentacle or tentacles.
terebrant boring, having a piercing ovipositor; (noun, facetious) a bore.
tergal relating to the tergum, an insect's upper or dorsal surface, esp of a body segment.
tergite the back plate of a somite.
tergum (Lat.) an insect's upper or dorsal surface, esp of a body segment.
tetract four-rayed; (noun) a four-rayed sponge spicule.
tetractinal having four rays.
tetractine having four rays.
thoracal relating to the thorax.
thorax (Lat.) in insects, the second body region, between the head and abdomen, where the legs and wings are attached.
torulus (Lat.) the socket of an insect's antenna.
tracheolar of or like a tracheole, one of the minute delicate endings of a branched trachea of an insect.
tracheole one of the minute delicate endings of a branched trachea of an insect.
triact three-rayed; (noun) a three-rayed sponge spicule.
triactinal three-rayed.
triactine three-rayed.
triaxial having three axes; (noun) a triaxial sponge spicule.
triradial three-rayed.
triradiate three-rayed.
triradiately (Adv.) TRIRADIATE, three-rayed.
trivalved having three valves.
trophi (Lat.) the mouthparts of an insect.
tylote a cylindrical sponge spicule.
typhlosole a fold of the wall which projects into the cavity of the intestine in bivalve mollusks, certain annelids, starfishes, and some other animals.
uncinal relating to an uncinus, a hooklet, a marginal tooth of a mollusc's radula.
uncinus (Lat.) a hooklet, a marginal tooth of a mollusc's radula.
uniramose esp. of the appendages of crustaceans, consisting of a single branch.
uniramous esp. of the appendages of crustaceans, consisting of a single branch.
urite an abdominal segment in insects.
uropod any one of the abdominal appendages of a crustacean, esp one of the posterior ones.
uropodal of or pertaining to a uropod, any one of the abdominal appendages of a crustacean.
uropodous of or pertaining to a uropod, any one of the abdominal appendages of a crustacean.
zoaea a larval stage in certain crustaceans.
zoea (Lat.) a larval stage in certain crustaceans, esp decapods.
zoeal pertaining to a zoea, a larval stage in certain crustaceans.
zoeform like a zoea, the larval stage of certain crustaceans.
zoocytium (Greek) a zoothecium, the tubular sheath of certain social infusorians.
zoodendrium the branched stalk connecting the members of the colony in certain colonial Infusoria.
zooea (Lat.) a larval stage in certain crustaceans, esp decapods.
zooeal of or like a zooea, a larval stage in certain crustaceans.
zygocardiac denoting certain paired lateral ossicles in the gastric mill of Crustacea.