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Science & Tech > Anatomy > Avian


Now updated for CSW15. New words, if any, and new inflections of existing words, are shown in red.


aftershaft the second shaft coming out of the quill of a feather.
alated having wings.
alation the state of having wings; the position of wings on a creature.
alula (Lat.) one of three feathers springing from the base of the primaries.
alular pertaining to the alulae, three feathers springing from the base of the primaries.
angustirostrate narrow-beaked.
anisodactyl a bird having the first toe directed backwards and the other three toes directed forwards.
anisodactylous of birds, having three toes turned forward, one backwards.
apterism winglessness.
apterium a bare patch on a bird's skin.
apterous lacking wings.
aviform bird-shaped.
axillar a feather on the underside of a bird's wing.
axillary growing from an axil; (noun) an axillary feather.
barbicel (Ital.) one of the small hooklike processes on the barbules of feathers.
beak a bird's bill.
beaked having a beak.
beakless without a beak.
beaklike like a beak.
beaky beaked.
becke (Spenser) a beak.
bewinged having wings.
birostrate double-beaked.
braccate having feathered legs or feet.
brachypterism the state of having abnormally short wings.
calcar (Lat.) a spur-like projection, as on the leg of a bird.
calcarate relating to a calcar, a spur-like projection on a bird's leg.
calcarine having a calcar.
carina (Lat.) a keel-shaped ridge on a bird's breast.
carinal of or like a carina, a keel-like anatomical part.
carpometacarpus in birds, a bone of the wing formed by fusion of some of the carpals with the metacarpals.
caruncle any fleshy growth on the body eg a rooster's comb.
caruncular having a caruncle.
carunculate having a caruncle.
carunculated having a caruncle.
carunculous having a caruncle.
clawless without claws.
clawlike resembling a claw.
cloaca (Lat.) a sewer; the terminal part of the gut in birds.
cloacal relating to the cloaca.
cloacaline relating to the cloaca.
cloacinal relating to the cloaca.
combless without a comb or crest.
conirostral having a strong conical beak, like eg most finches.
copple (Obs.) a bird's crest.
craw the stomach of a bird.
crissal relating to a crissum, on a bird, feathers covering the underside of the base of the tail.
crissum (Lat.) the area surrounding a bird's cloaca, including the under-tail feathers.
culmen (Lat.) the highest point, the upper ridge of a bird's bill.
culvertailed having a tail like a culver, a dove.
dasypaedal of young birds, having down.
dentirostral with notched beak.
dewlap a turkey's wattle; a flap of skin under the throat.
diplocardiac of birds and mammals, having a four-chambered heart, which enables two separate circulations and prevents mixing of the arterial and venous blood.
dowl (Dial.) a portion of down in a feather; a piece of fluff.
dowle (Dial.) a portion of down in a feather; a piece of fluff.
dowlne (Shakesp.) down, in sense of feathers.
downless without down.
downlike like down.
downy covered in down DOWNILY; (noun) a bed
eleutherodactyl of birds, having the hind toe free.
falconiform shaped like a falcon.
fantailed having a fan-shaped tail.
feather a horny structure found on the wings of birds (verb) to cover with feathers
feathery resembling feathers.
feetless destitute of feet; as, feetless birds.
filoplume a slender hairlike feather.
fissipalmate of some birds' feet, partially webbed, having lobes and fringes on separate toes.
fissirostral having a divided beak.
fledge feathers (verb) to furnish with feathers
fledgy (Keats) fledged, feathery.
forewing a front wing.
forficate deeply forked, esp of certain birds' tails.
furcula (Lat.) the jointed clavicles of a bird, aka wishbone.
furculum (Lat.) the jointed clavicles of a bird, aka wishbone.
gastraeum the undersurface of the body, esp in birds.
gonys the ridge along and towards the tip of the lower mandible, formed by the junction of its two halves or rami (as in gulls).
gymnorhinal with unfeathered nostril.
hallucal relating to the hallux, the big toe,
hallux (Lat.) the big toe; the hind toe of birds.
herl the barb of a feather.
heterodactyl a heterodactylous bird.
heterodactylous having the first and second toes turned backwards, as in trogons, and not the first and fourth as in parrots.
impennate featherless; wingless.
ingluvial of or pertaining to the ingluvies or crop of birds.
ingluvies (Lat.) the crop or craw of birds.
lamellirostral having transverse lamellae within the edge of the bill.
lamellirostrate having transverse lamellae within the edge of the bill.
latirostral having a broad beak.
latirostrate having a broad beak.
leptodactyl a bird or other animal with long slender toes.
lobiped having lobate toes, as a coot.
longipennate having elongated wings or feathers.
longirostral having an elongated beak.
loral pertaining to the lore, the side of a bird's head.
loreal pertaining to the lore, the side of a bird's head.
merrythought the furcula between the neck and breastbone of poultry, also called the wishbone.
metagnathism the state of being metagnathous, having a beak in which the tips of the mandibles cross.
metagnathous having a beak in which the tips of the mandibles cross.
micropterous having small wings or fins.
moulten (Shakesp.) having moulted.
nare (Arch.) a nostril, esp a hawk's.
naricorn the horny termination of a bird's nostril.
naris (Lat.) a nostril.
neb a bird's bill; (verb) to put a bill on.
notaeum (Lat.) the back or upper surface, as of a bird.
odontorhynchous of birds, having toothlike ridges inside the beak.
palama (Lat.) a membrane extending between the toes of a bird, and uniting them more or less closely together.
penna (Lat.) a feather, esp a large feather of the tail or wing.
pennate winged; feathered.
pennated winged; feathered.
penniform feather-shaped.
pileum (Lat.) the top of a bird's head.
pinfeather a feather not fully developed; esp a rudimentary feather just emerging through the skin.
pinion a wing; a small wheel with teeth; (verb) to fasten.
pinna (Lat.) a projecting feather.
pinnal pertaining to a pinna, a projecting feather.
pinnatiped having the toes bordered by membranes; fin-footed, as certain birds.
plumage the feathers of a bird.
plumaged having plumage.
plumate having feathers or plumes.
plumelet a small plume.
plumery plumes collectively.
plumiped having feathered feet; (noun) a creature with feathered feet.
plumose having feathers or plumes.
plumosely (Adv.) PLUMOSE, having feathers or plumes.
plumosity the state of being plumose.
plumous having feathers or plumes.
plumula (Lat.) a little feather or plume.
plumular relating to a plumule, a little feather or plume.
plumulate downy.
plumule a little feather or plume.
plumulose having hairs branching out laterally, like the parts of a feather.
premolt preceding a molt.
premoult preceding moult.
proventricular relating to the proventriculus, the first part of a bird's stomach.
proventriculus the first part of a bird's stomach, aka gizzard.
pteryla (Lat.) a tract of skin bearing contour feathers in birds.
pterylosis the arrangement of feathers in definite areas.
ptilosis (Greek) plumage or mode of feathering.
pygostyle the bone of a bird's tail.
rachial relating to a rachis, the spine or axis of a feather.
rachidial of or like a rachis, the spine or axis of a feather.
rachidian of or like a rachis, the spine or axis of a feather.
rachis (Lat.) the spine or axis of a feather.
rectricial relating to rectrices.
rectrix (Lat.) any of the quill feathers of a bird's tail that are important in controlling flight direction.
recurvirostral with up-bent bill.
remex (Lat.) one of the large feathers of a bird's wing.
remigial relating to the remiges, one of the large feathers of a bird's wing.
rhachial relating to a rhachis.
rhachidial of or like a rhachis, the spine or axis of a feather.
rhachis (Lat.) the spine or axis of a feather; the spinal cord.
rhamphoid hook-beak-shaped, like eg a toucan.
rhamphotheca the horny or leathery outer layer of a bird's bill.
rhinotheca the sheath of the upper mandible of a bird.
rhynchodont having a toothed beak.
rictal relating to the rictus, the expanse or gape of the mouth, or of the beak or jaws of a bird, fish, etc.
rostellar pertaining to a rostellum, a small beaklike process or extension of some part.
rostellate having a rostellum, or small beak; terminating in a beak.
rostellum (Lat.) the protruding forepart of the head of a tapeworm, armed with hooklets or spines.
rostrate beak-shaped.
rostrated beak-shaped.
saurognathous having a lizard-like arrangement of the palate-bones (as eg woodpeckers).
scapulated with noticeable scapular feathers.
scapus (Lat.) the shaft of a column or feather.
schizognathous of some birds, having the bones of the palate separate.
scutellum (Lat.) a scale on a bird's leg.
semipalmation the state of being semipalmate, partly webfooted.
semiplume a feather with an ordinary shaft but a downy web.
serratirostral saw-billed.
spuriae (Lat.) in birds, feathers of the bastard wing.
strophiole a caruncle.
subalar situated below the wings.
syndactylism being syndactyl, having fused digits.
syringeal of, pertaining to, or connected with the syrinx of a bird.
syrinx (Greek) the vocal organ of birds.
talon a hooked claw or finger.
taloned having talons.
tarsometatarsal relating to the tarsometatarsus, a bird's shankbone,
tarsometatarsus a long bone in the lower leg of birds and some reptiles, formed by the fusion of tarsal and metatarsal structures.
tectricial of or like a tectrix, one of the coverts (feathers covering the main feathers) of a bird's wing.
tectrix (Lat.) one of the coverts (feathers covering the main feathers) of a bird's wing.
tenuirostral of a bird, slender-billed.
tertial a feather of the decorative inner part of a bird's wing.
tertiary one of the feathers on a bird adjoining the secondaries.
tibiotarsus in birds, a bone formed by the fusion of the tibia and some of the tarsals.
tomial relating to the tomium, the cutting edge of a bird's bill.
tomium (Lat.) the cutting edge of a bird's bill.
torques a ring of fur or feathers round an animal's neck.
totipalmate having webbing between each toe, as in pelicans and gannets.
totipalmation the state of being totipalmate, having webbing between each toe.
underwing the underneath of a bird's wing.
unwinged not having wings.
uropygial of or pertaining to the uropygium, or prominence at the base of the tail feathers, in birds.
uropygium the prominence at the posterior extremity of a bird's body, which supports the feathers of the tail.
vexil the vane of a feather.
vexillar of or like a vexillum, the vane of a feather.
vexillate of or like a vexillum, the vane of a feather.
vexillum (Lat.) a flag or standard; the vane of a feather.
wing an organ of flight (verb) to travel by means of wings
wingless having no wings.
winglet a small wing.
wingspan the distance from the tip of one of a pair of wings to that of the other.
wingtip the end of a wing.
wingy having or resembling wings.
wishbone the V-shaped bone formed by the fused clavicles of a bird's breast.
zygodactyl having two toes pointing forward and two backwards; (noun) a bird, such as a woodpecker, having such toes.
zygodactylic having two toes in front and two behind.
zygodactylism the state of being zygodactylic, having two toes in front and two behind.
zygodactylous of or like a zygodactyl, having two toes pointing forward and two backwards.